Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for :

  • Author or Editor: J. Bradford x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Robert J. Warren II
and
Mark A. Bradford

Abstract

The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is a large-scale climate teleconnection that coincides with worldwide changes in weather. Its impacts have been documented at large scales, particularly in Europe, but not as much at regional scales. Furthermore, despite documented impacts on ecological dynamics in Europe, the NAO’s influence on North American biota has been somewhat overlooked. This paper examines long-term temperature and precipitation trends in the southern Appalachian Mountain region—a region well known for its biotic diversity, particularly in salamander species—and examines the connections between these trends and NAO cycles. To connect the NAO phase shifts with southern Appalachian ecology, trends in stream salamander abundance are also examined as a function of the NAO index. The results reported here indicate no substantial long-term warming or precipitation trends in the southern Appalachians and suggest a strong relationship between cool season (November–April) temperature and precipitation and the NAO. More importantly, trends in stream salamander abundance are best explained by variation in the NAO as salamanders are most plentiful during the warmer, wetter phases.

Full access
J. Bradford
,
A. S. Berman
, and
T. S. Lundgren

Abstract

The interfacial stability of two differentially rotating fluid layers in a tall, right circular cylinder is investigated analytically and experimentally. The differential speeds are such that the Ekman and Rossby numbers of the flow are small. A linearized stability analysis, including interfacial tension and viscous effects at the interface and end caps is performed on the nongeostrophic equations of motion. The nongeostrophic nature of the perturbed flow is due to the large height to radius ratio of the cylinder. The results yield stability boundaries which can be compared to quasi-geostrophic predictions for the same system. The nongeostrophic effects are found to stabilize the flow relative to the quasi-geostrophic predictions with the exception of narrow regions or “spikes” of instability in parameter space which are not accounted for by the quasi-geostrophic equations.

Experiments are conducted in which stability boundaries corresponding to wavenumbers n = 1 and n = 2 are determined. Good agreement is found with the viscous, nongeostrophic predictions, including a clear experimental reproduction of the distinctive “spike regions”. Qualitative observations also are made of amplitude and frequency modulated finite-amplitude baroclinic waves in the unstable regions.

Full access
Chuixiang Yi
,
Kenneth J. Davis
,
Bradford W. Berger
, and
Peter S. Bakwin

Abstract

Time series of mixed layer depth, zi, and stable boundary layer height from March through October of 1998 are derived from a 915-MHz boundary layer profiling radar and CO2 mixing ratio measured from a 447-m tower in northern Wisconsin. Mixed layer depths from the profiler are in good agreement with radiosonde measurements. Maximum zi occurs in May, coincident with the maximum daytime surface sensible heat flux. Incoming radiation is higher in June and July, but a greater proportion is converted to latent heat by photosynthesizing vegetation. An empirical relationship between zi and the square root of the cumulative surface virtual potential temperature flux is obtained (r 2 = 0.98) allowing estimates of zi from measurements of virtual potential temperature flux under certain conditions. In fair-weather conditions the residual mixed layer top was observed by the profiler on several nights each month. The synoptic mean vertical velocity (subsidence rate) is estimated from the temporal evolution of the residual mixed layer height during the night. The influence of subsidence on the evolution of the mixed, stable, and residual layers is discussed. The CO2 jump across the inversion at night is also estimated from the tower measurements.

Full access
Bradford W. Berger
,
Kenneth J. Davis
,
Chuixiang Yi
,
Peter S. Bakwin
, and
Cong Long Zhao

Abstract

Methodology for determining fluxes of CO2 and H2O vapor with the eddy-covariance method using data from instruments on a 447-m tower in the forest of northern Wisconsin is addressed. The primary goal of this study is the validation of the methods used to determine the net ecosystem exchange of CO2. Two-day least squares fits coupled with 30-day running averages limit calibration error of infrared gas analyzers for CO2 and H2O signals to ≈2%–3%. Sonic anemometers are aligned with local streamlines by fitting a sine function to tilt and wind direction averages, and fitting a third-order polynomial to the residual. Lag times are determined by selecting the peak in lagged covariance with an error of ≈1.5%–2% for CO2 and ≈1% for H2O vapor. Theory and a spectral fit method allow determination of the underestimation in CO2 flux (<5% daytime, <12% nighttime) and H2O vapor flux (<21%), which is due to spectral degradation induced by long air-sampling tubes. Scale analysis finds 0.5-h flux averaging periods are sufficient to measure all flux scales at 30-m height, but 1 h is necessary at higher levels, and random errors in the flux measurements due to limited sampling of atmospheric turbulence are fairly large (≈15%–20% for CO2 and ≈20%–40% for H2O vapor at lower levels for a 1-h period).

Full access
Robert W. Houghton
,
Ronald Schlitz
,
Robert C. Beardsley
,
Bradford Butman
, and
J. Lockwood Chamberlin

Abstract

Temperature data spanning the entire Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) during 1979 are used to study the structure and evolution of the cold pool. The Nantucket Shoals and New England Shelf appear to be the source of the coldest water found in the MAB in late winter. During the spring and summer, water within the cold pool in the New York Bight north of Hudson Canyon remains colder than any shelf water either to the northeast or southwest. Thus the coldest cold-pool water persists there as a remnant of winter-cooled water rather than being replenished by a colder upstream source, and south of Hudson Canyon, cold-pool temperatures decrease in June and July as colder water from upstream is advected southwestward along the coast. Both temperature data and direct current measurements suggest that the mean alongshore current has a minimum between Nantucket Shoals and Hudson Canyon. The alongshore variation of shelf topography appears to be responsible for the spatial variation in both the alongshelf drift speed and the thermal structure of the cold pool.

Full access
A. J. Illingworth
,
A. Battaglia
,
J. Bradford
,
M. Forsythe
,
P. Joe
,
P. Kollias
,
K. Lean
,
M. Lori
,
J.-F. Mahfouf
,
S. Melo
,
R Midthassel
,
Y. Munro
,
J. Nicol
,
R. Potthast
,
M. Rennie
,
T. H. M. Stein
,
S. Tanelli
,
F. Tridon
,
C. J. Walden
, and
M. Wolde

Abstract

This paper presents a conically scanning spaceborne Dopplerized 94-GHz radar Earth science mission concept: Wind Velocity Radar Nephoscope (WIVERN). WIVERN aims to provide global measurements of in-cloud winds using the Doppler-shifted radar returns from hydrometeors. The conically scanning radar could provide wind data with daily revisits poleward of 50°, 50-km horizontal resolution, and approximately 1-km vertical resolution. The measured winds, when assimilated into weather forecasts and provided they are representative of the larger-scale mean flow, should lead to further improvements in the accuracy and effectiveness of forecasts of severe weather and better focusing of activities to limit damage and loss of life. It should also be possible to characterize the more variable winds associated with local convection. Polarization diversity would be used to enable high wind speeds to be unambiguously observed; analysis indicates that artifacts associated with polarization diversity are rare and can be identified. Winds should be measurable down to 1 km above the ocean surface and 2 km over land. The potential impact of the WIVERN winds on reducing forecast errors is estimated by comparison with the known positive impact of cloud motion and aircraft winds. The main thrust of WIVERN is observing in-cloud winds, but WIVERN should also provide global estimates of ice water content, cloud cover, and vertical distribution, continuing the data series started by CloudSat with the conical scan giving increased coverage. As with CloudSat, estimates of rainfall and snowfall rates should be possible. These nonwind products may also have a positive impact when assimilated into weather forecasts.

Open access
James D. Doyle
,
Jonathan R. Moskaitis
,
Joel W. Feldmeier
,
Ronald J. Ferek
,
Mark Beaubien
,
Michael M. Bell
,
Daniel L. Cecil
,
Robert L. Creasey
,
Patrick Duran
,
Russell L. Elsberry
,
William A. Komaromi
,
John Molinari
,
David R. Ryglicki
,
Daniel P. Stern
,
Christopher S. Velden
,
Xuguang Wang
,
Todd Allen
,
Bradford S. Barrett
,
Peter G. Black
,
Jason P. Dunion
,
Kerry A. Emanuel
,
Patrick A. Harr
,
Lee Harrison
,
Eric A. Hendricks
,
Derrick Herndon
,
William Q. Jeffries
,
Sharanya J. Majumdar
,
James A. Moore
,
Zhaoxia Pu
,
Robert F. Rogers
,
Elizabeth R. Sanabia
,
Gregory J. Tripoli
, and
Da-Lin Zhang

Abstract

Tropical cyclone (TC) outflow and its relationship to TC intensity change and structure were investigated in the Office of Naval Research Tropical Cyclone Intensity (TCI) field program during 2015 using dropsondes deployed from the innovative new High-Definition Sounding System (HDSS) and remotely sensed observations from the Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD), both on board the NASA WB-57 that flew in the lower stratosphere. Three noteworthy hurricanes were intensively observed with unprecedented horizontal resolution: Joaquin in the Atlantic and Marty and Patricia in the eastern North Pacific. Nearly 800 dropsondes were deployed from the WB-57 flight level of ∼60,000 ft (∼18 km), recording atmospheric conditions from the lower stratosphere to the surface, while HIRAD measured the surface winds in a 50-km-wide swath with a horizontal resolution of 2 km. Dropsonde transects with 4–10-km spacing through the inner cores of Hurricanes Patricia, Joaquin, and Marty depict the large horizontal and vertical gradients in winds and thermodynamic properties. An innovative technique utilizing GPS positions of the HDSS reveals the vortex tilt in detail not possible before. In four TCI flights over Joaquin, systematic measurements of a major hurricane’s outflow layer were made at high spatial resolution for the first time. Dropsondes deployed at 4-km intervals as the WB-57 flew over the center of Hurricane Patricia reveal in unprecedented detail the inner-core structure and upper-tropospheric outflow associated with this historic hurricane. Analyses and numerical modeling studies are in progress to understand and predict the complex factors that influenced Joaquin’s and Patricia’s unusual intensity changes.

Open access