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Marinna Martini
,
Bradford Butman
, and
Michael J. Mickelson

Abstract

A field evaluation of two new dissolved-oxygen sensing technologies, the Aanderaa Instruments AS optode model 3830 and the Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc., model SBE43, was carried out at about 32-m water depth in western Massachusetts Bay. The optode is an optical sensor that measures fluorescence quenching by oxygen molecules, while the SBE43 is a Clark polarographic membrane sensor. Optodes were continuously deployed on bottom tripod frames by exchanging sensors every 4 months over a 19-month period. A Sea-Bird SBE43 was added during one 4-month deployment. These moored observations compared well with oxygen measurements from profiles collected during monthly shipboard surveys conducted by the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority. The mean correlation coefficient between the moored measurements and shipboard survey data was >0.9, the mean difference was 0.06 mL L−1, and the standard deviation of the difference was 0.15 mL L−1. The correlation coefficient between the optode and the SBE43 was >0.9 and the mean difference was 0.07 mL L−1. Optode measurements degraded when fouling was severe enough to block oxygen molecules from entering the sensing foil over a significant portion of the sensing window. Drift observed in two optodes beginning at about 225 and 390 days of deployment is attributed to degradation of the sensing foil. Flushing is necessary to equilibrate the Sea-Bird sensor. Power consumption by the SBE43 and required pump was 19.2 mWh per sample, and the optode consumed 0.9 mWh per sample, both within expected values based on manufacturers’ specifications.

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Bradford W. Berger
,
Kenneth J. Davis
,
Chuixiang Yi
,
Peter S. Bakwin
, and
Cong Long Zhao

Abstract

Methodology for determining fluxes of CO2 and H2O vapor with the eddy-covariance method using data from instruments on a 447-m tower in the forest of northern Wisconsin is addressed. The primary goal of this study is the validation of the methods used to determine the net ecosystem exchange of CO2. Two-day least squares fits coupled with 30-day running averages limit calibration error of infrared gas analyzers for CO2 and H2O signals to ≈2%–3%. Sonic anemometers are aligned with local streamlines by fitting a sine function to tilt and wind direction averages, and fitting a third-order polynomial to the residual. Lag times are determined by selecting the peak in lagged covariance with an error of ≈1.5%–2% for CO2 and ≈1% for H2O vapor. Theory and a spectral fit method allow determination of the underestimation in CO2 flux (<5% daytime, <12% nighttime) and H2O vapor flux (<21%), which is due to spectral degradation induced by long air-sampling tubes. Scale analysis finds 0.5-h flux averaging periods are sufficient to measure all flux scales at 30-m height, but 1 h is necessary at higher levels, and random errors in the flux measurements due to limited sampling of atmospheric turbulence are fairly large (≈15%–20% for CO2 and ≈20%–40% for H2O vapor at lower levels for a 1-h period).

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