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Mengun Jin
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J. Marshall Shepherd
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Andrew Grundstein
,
J. Marshall Shepherd
, and
Sarah Duzinski

Abstract

Inflatable bounce houses provide a popular summer activity for children. Injuries such as sprains and fractures are widely acknowledged, but there is less awareness about possible hazards from excessive heat exposure. This study aims to identify whether conditions in the bounce house are more oppressive than ambient conditions on a typical summer day in Athens, Georgia. Results show that maximum air temperatures in the bounce house can reach up to 3.7°C (6.7°F) greater than ambient conditions, and peak heat index values may exceed outdoor conditions by 4.5°C (8.1°F). When considered within the context of the National Weather Service heat index safety categories, the bounce house reached the “danger” level in more than half of the observations, compared with only 7% of observations for ambient conditions. Parents and caregivers should be aware of heat-related hazards in bounce houses and closely monitor children, adjusting or canceling activities as conditions become more oppressive.

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Christopher D. Bosma
,
Daniel B. Wright
,
Phu Nguyen
,
James P. Kossin
,
Derrick C. Herndon
, and
J. Marshall Shepherd

Abstract

Recent tropical cyclones (TCs) have highlighted the hazards that TC rainfall poses to human life and property. These hazards are not adequately conveyed by the commonly used Saffir–Simpson scale. Additionally, while recurrence intervals (or, their inverse, annual exceedance probabilities) are sometimes used in the popular media to convey the magnitude and likelihood of extreme rainfall and floods, these concepts are often misunderstood by the public and have important statistical limitations. We introduce an alternative metric—the extreme rain multiplier (ERM), which expresses TC rainfall as a multiple of the climatologically derived 2-yr rainfall value. ERM allows individuals to connect (“anchor,” in cognitive psychology terms) the magnitude of a TC rainfall event to the magnitude of rain events that are more typically experienced in their area. A retrospective analysis of ERM values for TCs from 1948 to 2017 demonstrates the utility of the metric as a hazard quantification and communication tool. Hurricane Harvey (2017) had the highest ERM value during this period, underlining the storm’s extreme nature. ERM correctly identifies damaging historical TC rainfall events that would have been classified as “weak” using wind-based metrics. The analysis also reveals that the distribution of ERM maxima is similar throughout the eastern and southern United States, allowing for both the accurate identification of locally extreme rainfall events and the development of regional-scale (rather than local-scale) recurrence interval estimates for extreme TC rainfall. Last, an analysis of precipitation forecast data for Hurricane Florence (2018) demonstrates ERM’s ability to characterize Florence’s extreme rainfall hazard in the days preceding landfall.

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Elaine M. Prins
,
Christopher S. Velden
,
Jeffrey D. Hawkins
,
F. Joseph Turk
,
Jaime M. Daniels
,
Gerald J. Dittberner
,
Kenneth Holmlund
,
Robbie E. Hood
,
Arlene G. Laing
,
Shaima L. Nasiri
,
Jeffery J. Puschell
,
J. Marshall Shepherd
, and
John V. Zapotocny
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