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  • Author or Editor: JAY S. WINSTON x
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Jay S. Winston

Abstract

Examination of 5-day mean radiation data over the Pacific sector with respect to latitude and time reveals well-marked continuity of the radiation maxima and minima. Variations in the radiation features for the Northern Hemisphere, particularly the pronounced south-north gradient in radiation northward from the subtropics, indicate some definite relationships to variations in the intensity of the westerly circulation, with stronger gradients when the westerlies are strong. Analysis of 5-day mean long-wave radiation data at 45N over the Pacific sector with respect to longitude and time also reveals clear-cut continuity which, to a great extent, is related to the mid-tropospheric wave pattern at 45N. Although the scale of the radiation pattern is smaller than that of the 500-mb height field, preferred positions of radiation maxima and minima relative to the wave pattern are indicated.

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Jay S. Winston

Abstract

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Carl O. Erickson and Jay S. Winston

Abstract

Satellite photographs have revealed the occasional existence of broad and extensive cloud bands reaching from tropical storms northeastward into the westerlies of middle latitudes. Fourteen well-defined cases of such cloud connections from western North Pacific tropical storms in the autumns of 1967, 1968 and 1969 are examined with respect to the large-scale circulation. The composited data show that the 300-mb westerlies over the North Pacific increase for several days following the onset of the cloud-band connections. Hemispheric kinetic energy for the whole troposphere tends to increase in similar fashion. These associations suggest that the injection of heat and moisture from tropical cyclones into the middle latitudes plays a significant role in the autumnal buildup of the planetary-scale circulation.

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P. Krishna Rao and Jay S. Winston

Abstract

Several samples of infrared radiation measurements in the 8–13 micron water-vapor “window” made by TIROS II are studied in relation to conventionally observed information on pressure systems, cloudiness and temperature These cases demonstrate further the synoptic capabilities, as well as some of the limitations, of these data for cloud detection; determination of cloud-top height; and observation of spatial gradients and temporal changes in the temperature of water-, land-, and snow-covered surfaces.

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