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  • Author or Editor: JAY S. WINSTON x
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Jay S. Winston

The annual course of zonal wind speed at 700 mb for latitudes 20° to 90 °N is portrayed in three ways—from monthly normal data, from monthly mean data averaged over a recent seven year period, and from 5-day mean data averaged over the same seven years. In a broad sense these representations have much in common, but the 5-day data reveal certain well-marked shorter period variations in the westerlies which appear to be related to singularities of the general circulation.

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Arnold Gruber and Jay S. Winston

A brief description of an earth radiation budget data set, as determined from NOAA operational spacecraft, is presented. The data are continuous from June 1974 through February 1978. Some samples of the mapped outputs are shown, and information on the availability of these data is provided.

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Jay S. Winston and Lloyd Tourville

The cloud structure of an occluded cyclone and its environs over the Gulf of Alaska is revealed in detail by a series of TIROS pictures. The pictures clearly portray:

  • (1) the nature and extent of dense cloudiness around the inner core of the cyclone;
  • (2) a broad band of cloudiness associated with the main polar front;
  • (3) the pattern of overrunning cloudiness marking a newly developing wave south of the main storm;
  • (4) a previously undetected, old cyclonic vortex in mid-troposphere; and
  • (5) the striking cellular arrangement of cumuliform clouds in the cyclonic flow to the rear of the storm.

These features are related to the conventional meteorological data and analyses over this area and are found in many places to corroborate them rather well. On the other hand, there are several places, particularly in view of the sparsity of conventional data, where the cloud pictures suggest that improvements could be made in the map analyses and numerically computed vertical motions on the basis of the TIROS cloud information.

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William H. Klein and Jay S. Winston

The movement of the Atlantic hurricane of September 11–20, 1947, into the Gulf of Mexico rather than up the Atlantic Coast, is attributed to dynamic anticyclogenesis over the eastern United States. An attempt is made to explain this anticyclogenesis by the transfer of energy downstream from the mid-Pacific at a rate considerably greater than the speed of individual air particles. The motion and change in intensity of 700 mb trough and ridge systems are discussed in terms of constant absolute vorticity, horizontal temperature advection, and the process of confluence. It is concluded that the large-scale features of the hemispheric circulation are of great importance for short-range, as well as for extended, weather forecasting.

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