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Jae-Hun Park
and
D. Randolph Watts

Abstract

This paper investigates the internal tidal energy distribution in the southwestern Japan/East Sea using vertical round-trip travel time (τ) data from 23 pressure-sensor-equipped inverted echo sounders (PIES). The τ records are analyzed by bandpass filtering to separate time-dependent variability of the semidiurnal and diurnal bands. The semidiurnal internal tides exhibit a horizontal beam pattern of high energy, propagating into the open basin. They originate from a restricted portion of the shelf break where the Korea Strait enters the Ulleung Basin. The generation appears to occur at ∼200-m water depth near 35.5°–35.7°N and 130°–131°E, where the slope of bottom topography matches that of the wave characteristics, coinciding with the location where the semidiurnal barotropic cross-slope tidal currents are strongest. Maximum vertical displacement of the thermocline interpreted as a long-wave first baroclinic mode from the measured τ is about 25 m near the generation region. Annual and monthly variations of the propagation patterns and generation energy levels are observed, and these are closely associated with changes in the mesoscale circulation and stratification. Eastward (westward) refraction is observed when a warm (cold) eddy crosses the path of internal tide propagation. Moreover, when the generation region is invaded by cold eddies that spoil the match between shelf break and thermocline depth, the internal tidal energy level decreases by a factor of about 2. A simple geometric optics model is proposed to explain the observed horizontal refraction of the beam of semidiurnal internal tides in which stratification and current shear play essential roles. In contrast, diurnal internal tides are observed to be trapped along the continental slope region around 36°N.

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Ruixiang Zhao
,
Xiao-Hua Zhu
, and
Jae-Hun Park

Abstract

Oceanic, nonisostatic responses to near 5-day Rossby–Haurwitz atmospheric pressure waves have been observed in open oceans; however, such responses based on observations in marginal seas such as the South China Sea have not been reported, owing to the limited ocean bottom pressure P bot records. The P bot measurements from pressure recording inverted echo sounders (PIESs) at sites in the northern South China Sea revealed a nonisostatic-like response near 5 days, although the coastal-trapped waves (CTWs) appeared to obscure it because their broadband periods include the near 5-day band. Cross-spectral analysis revealed that the PIES P bot records and the sea level (SL) records of Hong Kong all correlate strongly with the atmospheric pressure and winds over the East China Sea. This is indicative of remotely forced CTWs. The PIES P bot records showed higher coherence near 5 days with the zonal low-pass wavelength filters applied to the atmospheric pressure, and the phase analysis results strongly suggest nonisostatic oceanic responses to the westward-propagating Rossby–Haurwitz waves. Effective separation of CTWs and the nonisostatic responses from the P bot records at the near 5-day period was achieved. The oceanic responses to the Rossby–Haurwitz waves in the northern South China Sea were nonisostatic; a 1-mbar change in air pressure resulted in a 1.58-mbar change in P bot with a phase lag of 14.8°. The mean phase speed of CTWs from Hong Kong to station P3 was estimated to be 9.9 m s−1.

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Stuart P. Bishop
,
D. Randolph Watts
,
Jae-Hun Park
, and
Nelson G. Hogg

Abstract

As part of the Kuroshio Extension System Study, observations from five current meter moorings reveal that the abyssal currents are weakly bottom intensified. In the framework of linear quasigeostrophic flow, the best fitted vertical trapping depths range from 8 to 15 km in the absence of steep topography, but one mooring near an isolated seamount exhibited vertical trapping that was more pronounced and energetic with a vertical trapping depth of 5 km. The ratios of current speeds and geostrophic pressure streamfunctions at the sea surface compared to the bottom are 88% in the absence of steep topography, 63% near an isolated seamount, and overall on average 83% of their value at a reference depth of 5300 m. It is hypothesized that weakly depth-dependent eddies impinging upon topographic features introduce to the flow the horizontal length scales of the topography, and these smaller lateral scales are subject to bottom intensification.

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Jae-Hun Park
,
D. Randolph Watts
,
Karen L. Tracey
, and
Douglas A. Mitchell

Abstract

This paper demonstrates a new gravest empirical mode (GEM) technique that constructs multi-index lookup tables of temperature (T) and specific volume anomalies (δ) using historical hydrocasts as a function of three indices: round-trip travel time (τ) from sea floor to the surface, sea surface temperature, and pressure. Moreover, the historical hydrocasts are separated into non-mixed-layer (NML) and mixed-layer (ML) groups, and a single GEM field is constructed for each group. This is called the MI-GEM technique. The appropriate dates for MI-GEM fields are determined by the monthly distribution of the number of NML and ML profiles in the historical hydrocasts, which are also well correlated with the strength of the winds during the 2 yr of observations. The T and δ profiles that are determined by this MI-GEM technique capture 92% and 88% of the T and δ variances in the depth range of 0–200 db. These values reduce by about one-third of the unexplained error variance of the residual GEM, which was recently developed and applied to the optimal interpolated τ data in the southwestern Japan/East Sea (JES) by Mitchell et al. Comparisons with the in situ CTD casts demonstrate that the MI-GEM technique almost always produces improved full water column profiles of T and δ. Whereas the residual GEM estimates had exhibited qualitatively erroneous features like T inversions in the near–surface layer and too thin or thick intermediate water layers in some regions, the MI-GEM estimates avoid those problems, which were inherent to the residual GEM technique in the southwestern JES.

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Sok Kuh Kang
,
Young Ho Seung
,
Jong Jin Park
,
Jae-Hun Park
,
Jae Hak Lee
,
Eun Jin Kim
,
Young Ho Kim
, and
Moon-Sik Suk

Abstract

Trajectories of Argo floats deployed in the East/Japan Sea from 2001 to 2014 reveal that the middepth gyral circulation pattern of the Japan basin, the central part of the East/Japan Sea, undergoes a seasonal variation. The middepth circulation of the Japan basin is found to be characterized usually by the gyres trapped to the east of the Bogorov Rise (E-gyres) and those extending farther westward into the whole basin (BW-gyres). The E-gyre trajectories are generally associated with the turning of the floats toward deeper regions off the isobaths. This occurs in winter either on the northern or eastern side of the eastern Japan basin. It seems that the upstream part of the otherwise BW-gyre is subject to a strong negative wind stress curl in winter, and there the circulating water columns are driven toward the deeper region, thus triggering the formation of the E-gyre. The topographic effect associated with the Bogorov Rise seems to interfere thereafter in the process of determining the passage of the E-gyre. Otherwise, the water columns continue to flow along the isobaths, hence maintaining the BW-gyre. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first observational evidence of seasonal variability in the middepth gyral circulation pattern in the East/Japan Sea. It suggests that oceanic middepth circulation, usually known to be quasi steady or slowly varying on climatological time scales, might also undergo a significant seasonal variation as it does in the East/Japan Sea.

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Ho Jin Lee
,
Jae-Hun Park
,
Mark Wimbush
,
Kyung Tae Jung
,
Chan Joo Jang
,
Yang-Ki Cho
,
Young-Kyo Seo
, and
Jong Ho Nam

Abstract

Although tides are believed to be the most important source for diapycnal mixing in the ocean, few studies have directly simulated open-ocean circulation including tides. Because the East/Japan Sea (EJS) has been considered to be a “miniature ocean,” tidal effects on the intermediate water of the EJS are investigated by using an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model that can take account of M 2 and K 1 tides as well as oceanic flows. The simulated temperature and salinity in the intermediate layer are significantly improved by including tides. The improvement results from the combined effect of two internal tides. The M 2 internal tide, propagating into the interior of the EJS, enhances vertical mixing and brings watermass characteristics closer to those observed. The K 1 internal tide, trapped along the coast, induces southwestward flow along the Russian coast in the upper layer and thereby enhances the so-called Liman Current, which transports fresh waters with density conducive to the ventilation of intermediate waters in the EJS.

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Magdalena Andres
,
Ruth C. Musgrave
,
Daniel L. Rudnick
,
Kristin L. Zeiden
,
Thomas Peacock
, and
Jae-Hun Park

Abstract

As part of the Flow Encountering Abrupt Topography (FLEAT) program, an array of pressure-sensor equipped inverted echo sounders (PIESs) was deployed north of Palau where the westward-flowing North Equatorial Current encounters the southern end of the Kyushu–Palau Ridge in the tropical North Pacific. Capitalizing on concurrent observations from satellite altimetry, FLEAT Spray gliders, and shipboard hydrography, the PIESs’ 10-month duration hourly bottom pressure p and round-trip acoustic travel time τ records are used to examine the magnitude and predictability of sea level and pycnocline depth changes and to track signal propagations through the array. Sea level and pycnocline depth are found to vary in response to a range of ocean processes, with their magnitude and predictability strongly process dependent. Signals characterized here comprise the barotropic tides, semidiurnal and diurnal internal tides, southeastward-propagating superinertial waves, westward-propagating mesoscale eddies, and a strong signature of sea level increase and pycnocline deepening associated with the region’s relaxation from El Niño to La Niña conditions. The presence of a broad band of superinertial waves just above the inertial frequency was unexpected and the FLEAT observations and output from a numerical model suggest that these waves detected near Palau are forced by remote winds east of the Philippines. The PIES-based estimates of pycnocline displacement are found to have large uncertainties relative to overall variability in pycnocline depth, as localized deep current variations arising from interactions of the large-scale currents with the abrupt topography around Palau have significant travel time variability.

Open access
Hua Zheng
,
Xiao-Hua Zhu
,
Ruixiang Zhao
,
Juntian Chen
,
Min Wang
,
Qiang Ren
,
Yansong Liu
,
Feng Nan
,
Fei Yu
, and
Jae-Hun Park

Abstract

Typhoon Mangkhut crossed the northeastern South China Sea (SCS) in September 2018 and induced energetic near-inertial waves (NIWs) that were captured by an array of 39 current- and pressure-recording inverted echo sounders and two tall moorings with acoustic Doppler current profilers and current meter sensors. The array extended from west of the Luzon Strait to the interior SCS, with the path of the typhoon cutting through the array. NIWs in the interior SCS had lower frequency than those near the Luzon Strait. After the typhoon crossed the SCS, Mangkhut-induced near-inertial currents in the upper ocean reached over 50 cm s−1. NIWs traveled southward for hundreds of kilometers, dominated by modes 2 and 3 in the upper and deep ocean. The horizontal phase speeds of mode 2 were ∼3.9 and ∼2.5 m s−1 north and south of the typhoon’s track, respectively, while those of mode 3 were ∼2.1 and ∼1.7 m s−1, respectively. Mode 5 was only identified in the north with a smaller phase speed. Owing to different vertical group velocities, the energy of mode-2 NIWs reached the deep ocean in 20 days, whereas the higher-mode NIWs required more time to transfer energy to the bottom. NIWs in the north were trapped and carried by a westward-propagating anticyclonic eddy, which enhanced the near-inertial kinetic energy at ∼300 m and lengthened the duration of energetic NIWs observed in the north.

Significance Statement

Near-inertial waves (NIWs), generally caused by wind (e.g., typhoons and monsoons) in the upper ocean, are one of the two types of energetic internal waves widely observed in the ocean. After their generation near the surface, energetic NIWs propagate downward and equatorward, thereby significantly contributing to turbulent mixing in the upper and deep ocean and acting as a mechanism of energy transfer from the surface to the deep ocean. The unprecedented NIW observations in the South China Sea describe the generation, propagation, and vertical normal modes of typhoon-induced NIWs in the upper and deep oceans, and contribute to knowledge regarding the dynamic responses of abyssal processes to typhoons.

Restricted access
Maarten C. Buijsman
,
Jody M. Klymak
,
Sonya Legg
,
Matthew H. Alford
,
David Farmer
,
Jennifer A. MacKinnon
,
Jonathan D. Nash
,
Jae-Hun Park
,
Andy Pickering
, and
Harper Simmons

Abstract

The three-dimensional (3D) double-ridge internal tide interference in the Luzon Strait in the South China Sea is examined by comparing 3D and two-dimensional (2D) realistic simulations. Both the 3D simulations and observations indicate the presence of 3D first-mode (semi)diurnal standing waves in the 3.6-km-deep trench in the strait. As in an earlier 2D study, barotropic-to-baroclinic energy conversion, flux divergence, and dissipation are greatly enhanced when semidiurnal tides dominate relative to periods dominated by diurnal tides. The resonance in the 3D simulation is several times stronger than in the 2D simulations for the central strait. Idealized experiments indicate that, in addition to ridge height, the resonance is only a function of separation distance and not of the along-ridge length; that is, the enhanced resonance in 3D is not caused by 3D standing waves or basin modes. Instead, the difference in resonance between the 2D and 3D simulations is attributed to the topographic blocking of the barotropic flow by the 3D ridges, affecting wave generation, and a more constructive phasing between the remotely generated internal waves, arriving under oblique angles, and the barotropic tide. Most of the resonance occurs for the first mode. The contribution of the higher modes is reduced because of 3D radiation, multiple generation sites, scattering, and a rapid decay in amplitude away from the ridge.

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Jhoon Kim
,
Ukkyo Jeong
,
Myoung-Hwan Ahn
,
Jae H. Kim
,
Rokjin J. Park
,
Hanlim Lee
,
Chul Han Song
,
Yong-Sang Choi
,
Kwon-Ho Lee
,
Jung-Moon Yoo
,
Myeong-Jae Jeong
,
Seon Ki Park
,
Kwang-Mog Lee
,
Chang-Keun Song
,
Sang-Woo Kim
,
Young Joon Kim
,
Si-Wan Kim
,
Mijin Kim
,
Sujung Go
,
Xiong Liu
,
Kelly Chance
,
Christopher Chan Miller
,
Jay Al-Saadi
,
Ben Veihelmann
,
Pawan K. Bhartia
,
Omar Torres
,
Gonzalo González Abad
,
David P. Haffner
,
Dai Ho Ko
,
Seung Hoon Lee
,
Jung-Hun Woo
,
Heesung Chong
,
Sang Seo Park
,
Dennis Nicks
,
Won Jun Choi
,
Kyung-Jung Moon
,
Ara Cho
,
Jongmin Yoon
,
Sang-kyun Kim
,
Hyunkee Hong
,
Kyunghwa Lee
,
Hana Lee
,
Seoyoung Lee
,
Myungje Choi
,
Pepijn Veefkind
,
Pieternel F. Levelt
,
David P. Edwards
,
Mina Kang
,
Mijin Eo
,
Juseon Bak
,
Kanghyun Baek
,
Hyeong-Ahn Kwon
,
Jiwon Yang
,
Junsung Park
,
Kyung Man Han
,
Bo-Ram Kim
,
Hee-Woo Shin
,
Haklim Choi
,
Ebony Lee
,
Jihyo Chong
,
Yesol Cha
,
Ja-Ho Koo
,
Hitoshi Irie
,
Sachiko Hayashida
,
Yasko Kasai
,
Yugo Kanaya
,
Cheng Liu
,
Jintai Lin
,
James H. Crawford
,
Gregory R. Carmichael
,
Michael J. Newchurch
,
Barry L. Lefer
,
Jay R. Herman
,
Robert J. Swap
,
Alexis K. H. Lau
,
Thomas P. Kurosu
,
Glen Jaross
,
Berit Ahlers
,
Marcel Dobber
,
C. Thomas McElroy
, and
Yunsoo Choi

Abstract

The Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) is scheduled for launch in February 2020 to monitor air quality (AQ) at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution from a geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) for the first time. With the development of UV–visible spectrometers at sub-nm spectral resolution and sophisticated retrieval algorithms, estimates of the column amounts of atmospheric pollutants (O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO, CHOCHO, and aerosols) can be obtained. To date, all the UV–visible satellite missions monitoring air quality have been in low Earth orbit (LEO), allowing one to two observations per day. With UV–visible instruments on GEO platforms, the diurnal variations of these pollutants can now be determined. Details of the GEMS mission are presented, including instrumentation, scientific algorithms, predicted performance, and applications for air quality forecasts through data assimilation. GEMS will be on board the Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite 2 (GEO-KOMPSAT-2) satellite series, which also hosts the Advanced Meteorological Imager (AMI) and Geostationary Ocean Color Imager 2 (GOCI-2). These three instruments will provide synergistic science products to better understand air quality, meteorology, the long-range transport of air pollutants, emission source distributions, and chemical processes. Faster sampling rates at higher spatial resolution will increase the probability of finding cloud-free pixels, leading to more observations of aerosols and trace gases than is possible from LEO. GEMS will be joined by NASA’s Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) and ESA’s Sentinel-4 to form a GEO AQ satellite constellation in early 2020s, coordinated by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS).

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