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James F. Booth, Veeshan Narinesingh, Katherine L. Towey, and Jeyavinoth Jeyaratnam


Storm surge is a weather hazard that can generate dangerous flooding and is not fully understood in terms of timing and atmospheric forcing. Using observations along the northeastern United States, surge is sorted on the basis of duration and intensity to reveal distinct time-evolving behavior. Long-duration surge events slowly recede, whereas strong, short-duration events often involve negative surge in quick succession after the maximum. Using Lagrangian track information, the tropical and extratropical cyclones and atmospheric blocks that generate the surge events are identified. There is a linear correlation between surge duration and surge maximum, and the relationship is stronger for surge caused by extratropical cyclones as compared with those events caused by tropical cyclones. For the extremes based on duration, the shortest-duration strong surge events are caused by tropical cyclones, whereas the longest-duration events are most often caused by extratropical cyclones. At least one-half of long-duration surge events involve anomalously strong atmospheric blocking poleward of the cyclone, whereas strong, short-duration events are most often caused by cyclones in the absence of blocking. The dynamical influence of the blocks leads to slow-moving cyclones that take meandering paths. In contrast, for strong, short-duration events, cyclones travel faster and take a more meridional path. These unique dynamical scenarios provide better insight for interpreting the threat of surge in medium-range forecasts.

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Catherine M. Naud, James F. Booth, Matthew Lebsock, and Mircea Grecu


Using cyclone-centered compositing and a database of extratropical-cyclone locations, the distribution of precipitation frequency and rate in oceanic extratropical cyclones is analyzed using satellite-derived datasets. The distribution of precipitation rates retrieved using two new datasets, the Global Precipitation Measurement radar–microwave radiometer combined product (GPM-CMB) and the Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for GPM product (IMERG), is compared with CloudSat, and the differences are discussed. For reference, the composites of AMSR-E, GPCP, and two reanalyses are also examined. Cyclone-centered precipitation rates are found to be the largest with the IMERG and CloudSat datasets and lowest with GPM-CMB. A series of tests is conducted to determine the roles of swath width, swath location, sampling frequency, season, and epoch. In all cases, these effects are less than ~0.14 mm h−1 at 50-km resolution. Larger differences in the composites are related to retrieval biases, such as ground-clutter contamination in GPM-CMB and radar saturation in CloudSat. Overall the IMERG product reports precipitation more often, with larger precipitation rates at the center of the cyclones, in conditions of high precipitable water (PW). The CloudSat product tends to report more precipitation in conditions of dry or moderate PW. The GPM-CMB product tends to systematically report lower precipitation rates than the other two datasets. This intercomparison provides 1) modelers with an observational uncertainty and range (0.21–0.36 mm h−1 near the cyclone centers) when using composites of precipitation for model evaluation and 2) retrieval-algorithm developers with a categorical analysis of the sensitivity of the products to PW.

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James F. Booth, Harald E. Rieder, Dong Eun Lee, and Yochanan Kushnir


This study analyzes the association between wintertime high-wind events (HWEs) in the northeastern United States and extratropical cyclones. Sustained wind maxima in the daily summary data from the National Climatic Data Center’s integrated surface database are analyzed for 1979–2012. For each station, a generalized Pareto distribution is fit to the upper tail of the daily maximum wind speed data, and probabilistic return levels at 1, 3, and 5 yr are derived. Wind events meeting the return-level criteria are termed HWEs. The HWEs occurring on the same day are grouped into simultaneous wind exceedance dates, termed multistation events. In a separate analysis, extratropical cyclones are tracked using ERA-Interim. The multistation events are associated with the extratropical cyclone tracks on the basis of cyclone proximity on the day of the event. The multistation wind events are found to be most often associated with cyclones traveling from southwest to northeast, originating west of the Appalachian Mountains. To quantify the relative frequency of the strong-wind-associated cyclones, the full set of northeastern cyclone tracks is separated on the basis of path, using a crosshairs algorithm designed for this region. The tracks separate into an evenly distributed set of four pathways approaching the northeastern United States: from due west, from the southwest, and from the southeast and storms starting off the coast north of the Carolinas. Using the frequency of the tracks in each of the pathways, it is shown that the storms associated with multistation wind events are most likely to approach the northeastern United States from the southwest.

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