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  • Author or Editor: James M. Russell III x
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James M. Russell III and Larry L. Gordley

Abstract

An inversion algorithm has been developed to simultaneously infer the concentrations of two gases with overlapping spectral signatures using limb emission measurements. The algorithm is efficient and provides a solution in two or three iterations. It has been tested in a simulation study for the inference of stratospheric NO2–H2 and HNO3–CF(2CL2 Existing satellite instrumentation was the basis for errors used in the calculations. These included noise, scale and bias errors, angular registration errors, spacecraft motion effects, and effects due to a finite instrument field of view. It is estimated that concentrations of all four gases can be measured globally from a satellite with errors of less than 20%.

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Jae H. Park and James M. Russell III

Abstract

Regions of low stratospheric ozone that are anticorrelated with HCl, NO, and NO2 levels have been observed in the Arctic and Antarctic summers of 1992 and 1993 by the Halogen Occultation Experiment on the UARS platform. The low ozone areas are confined to the ∼8–45 mb (∼33–21 km) region and poleward of ∼60° in each hemisphere. While low polar summer ozone has been observed before, this is the first time simultaneous observations of relevant nitrogen and chlorine chemical species have been made. The phenomenon appears to be a recurring geophysical feature, and the satellite data should provide an excellent opportunity to improve our understanding of the chemistry causing these conditions.

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James M. Russell III and S. Roland Drayson

Abstract

A method is presented for inferring atmospheric ozone information using infrared horizon radiance measurements in the 1042 cm−1 band. An analysis based on this method proves the feasibility of the horizon experiment for determining ozone information and shows that the ozone partial pressure can be determined in the altitude range from 50 down to 25 km. A comprehensive error study is conducted which considers effects of individual errors as well as the effect of all error sources acting simultaneously. The results show that in the absence of a temperature profile bias error, it should be possible to determine the ozone partial pressure to within an rms value of 15–20%. It may be possible to reduce this rms error to 5% by smoothing the solution profile. These results would be seriously degraded by an atmospheric temperature bias error of only 3K; thus, great care should be taken to minimize this source of error in an experiment. It is probable, in view of recent technological developments, that these errors will be much smaller in future flight experiments and the altitude range will widen to include from ∼60 km down to the tropopause region.

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William J. Randel, Fei Wu, James M. Russell III, Aidan Roche, and Joe W. Waters

Abstract

Measurements of stratospheric methane (CH4) and water vapor (H2O) are used to investigate seasonal and interannual variability in stratospheric transport. Data are from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) spanning 1991–97. Profile measurements are binned according to analyzed potential vorticity fields (equivalent latitude mapping), and seasonal cycles are fit using harmonic regression analysis. Methane data from the UARS Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer and water vapor from the Microwave Limb Sounder are also used to fill in winter polar latitudes (where HALOE measurements are unavailable), yielding complete global seasonal cycles. These data reveal well-known seasonal variations with novel detail, including 1) the presence of enhanced latitudinal gradients (mixing barriers) in the subtropics and across the polar vortices, 2) strong descent inside the polar vortices during winter and spring, and 3) vigorous seasonality in the tropical upper stratosphere, related to seasonal upwelling and the semiannual oscillation. The observed variations are in agreement with aspects of the mean meridional circulation derived from stratospheric meteorological analyses. Interannual variations are also investigated, and a majority of the variance is found to be coherent with the equatorial quasibiennial oscillation (QBO). Strong QBO influence is found in the tropical upper stratosphere: the double-peaked “rabbit ears” structure occurs primarily during QBO westerlies. The QBO also modulates the latitudinal position of the tropical “reservoir” in the middle stratosphere.

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Ellis Remsberg, James M. Russell III, Larry L. Gordley, John C. Gille, and Paul L. Bailey

Abstract

The LIMS experiment on Nimbus 7 has provided new results on the stratospheric water vapor distribution. The data show 1) a latitudinal gradient with mixing ratios that increase by a factor of 2 from equator to ±60 degrees at 50 mb, 2) most of the time there is a fairly uniform mixing ratio of 5 ppmv at high latitudes, but more variation exists during winter, 3) a well-developed hygropause at low to midlatitudes of the lower stratosphere 4) a source region of water vapor in the upper stratosphere to lower mesosphere that is consistent with methane oxidation chemistry, at least within the uncertainties of the data, 5) an apparent zonal mean H2O distribution that is consistent with the circulation proposed by Brewer in 1949, and 6) a zonal mean distribution in the lower stratosphere that is consistent with the idea of quasi-isentropic transport by eddies in the meridional direction. Limits to the use of the data in the refinement of our understanding of the stratospheric water vapor budget are noted.

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Rolando R. Garcia, Ruth Lieberman, James M. Russell III, and Martin G. Mlynczak

Abstract

Observations made by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on board NASA’s Thermosphere–Ionosphere–Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite have been processed using Salby’s fast Fourier synoptic mapping (FFSM) algorithm. The mapped data provide a first synoptic look at the mean structure and traveling waves of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) since the launch of the TIMED satellite in December 2001. The results show the presence of various wave modes in the MLT, which reach largest amplitude above the mesopause and include Kelvin and Rossby–gravity waves, eastward-propagating diurnal oscillations (“non-sun-synchronous tides”), and a set of quasi-normal modes associated with the so-called 2-day wave. The latter exhibits marked seasonal variability, attaining large amplitudes during the solstices and all but disappearing at the equinoxes. SABER data also show a strong quasi-stationary Rossby wave signal throughout the middle atmosphere of the winter hemisphere; the signal extends into the Tropics and even into the summer hemisphere in the MLT, suggesting ducting by westerly background zonal winds. At certain times of the year, the 5-day Rossby normal mode and the 4-day wave associated with instability of the polar night jet are also prominent in SABER data.

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R. Bradley Pierce, William L. Grose, James M. Russell III, Adrian F. Tuck, Richard Swinbank, and Alan O'Neill

Abstract

The distribution of dehydrated air in the middle and lower stratosphere during the 1992 Southern Hemisphere spring is investigated using Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) observations and trajectory techniques. Comparisons between previously published Version 9 and the improved Version 16 retrievals on the 700-K isentropic surface show very slight (0.05 ppmv) increases in Version 16 CH4 relative to Version 9 within the polar vortex. Version 16 H2O mixing ratios show a reduction of 0.5 ppmv relative to Version 9 within the polar night jet and a reduction of nearly 1.0 ppmv in middle latitudes when compared to Version 9. The Version 16 HALOE retrievals show low mixing ratios of total hydrogen (2CH4 + H2O) within the polar vortex on both 700 and 425 K isentropic surfaces relative to typical middle-stratospheric 2CH4 + H2O mixing ratios. The low 2CH4 + H2O mixing ratios are associated with dehydration. Slight reductions in total hydrogen, relative to typical middle-stratospheric values, are found at these levels throughout the Southern Hemisphere during this period. Trajectory calculations show that middle-latitude air masses are composed of a mixture of air from within the polar night jet and air from middle latitudes. A strong kinematic barrier to large-scale exchange is found on the poleward flank of the polar night jet at 700 K. A much weaker kinematic barrier is found at 425 K. The impact of the finite tangent pathlength of the HALOE measurements is investigated using an idealized tracer distribution. This experiment suggests that HALOE should be able to resolve the kinematic barrier, if it exists.

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