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Kenneth Sassen
and
James R. Campbell

Abstract

A uniquely extensive high cloud dataset has been collected from the University of Utah Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing in support of the First (ISCCP) International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment extended time observations satellite validation effort. Here in Part I of a series of papers examining the climatological properties of the cirrus clouds studied over Salt Lake City, Utah, ∼2200 h of data collected from 1986–96 is used to create a subset of 1389 hourly polarization ruby (0.694 μm) lidar measurements of cloud layer heights. These data were obtained within ±3 h of the local 0000 UTC National Weather Service radiosonde launches to provide reliable cloud temperature, pressure, and wind data. Future parts of this series will consider the inferred cirrus cloud microphysical and radiative properties.

In addition to describing the cirrus macrophysical properties in terms of their yearly, seasonal, and monthly means and variabilities, the synoptic weather patterns responsible for the cirrus are characterized. The strong linkage between cirrus and weather is controlled by upper-air circulations mainly related to seasonally persistent intermountain region ridge/trough systems. The cloud-top heights of cirrus usually associated with jet streams tend to approach the local tropopause, except during the summer season due to relatively weak monsoonal convective activity. Although a considerable degree of variability exists, 10-yr average values for cirrus cloud-base/top properties are 8.79/11.2 km, 336.3/240.2 mb, −34.4°/−53.9°C, 16.4/20.2 m s−1, and 276.3°/275.7° wind direction. The average cirrus layer physical thickness for single and multiple layers is 1.81 km. Estimates of cloud optical thickness τ based on a “thin” (i.e., bluish) visual appearance suggest that τ ≲ 0.3 occur ∼50% of the time for detected cirrus, implying that the cirrus in the region of study may be too tenuous to be effectively sampled using current satellite methods. The global representativeness of this extended cirrus cloud study is discussed.

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James R. Campbell
,
Kenneth Sassen
, and
Ellsworth J. Welton

Abstract

A threshold-based detection algorithm for cloud and aerosol layer heights in elevated micropulse lidar data (0.523 μm) is described. Thresholds for differentiating cloud and aerosol signals from that of the molecular atmosphere are based on the signal uncertainties of the level 1.0 Micropulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) data product. To illustrate the algorithm, data from 1 to 10 June 2003 collected by an MPLNET instrument at the South Pole are discussed for polar stratospheric cloud-height retrievals. Additional tests are run for algorithm sensitivity relative to variable solar background scenes. The algorithm is run at multiple temporal resolutions. Results derived at a base resolution are used to screen attenuation-limited profiles from longer time averages to improve performance. A signal normalization step using a theoretical molecular scattering profile limits the application of the technique in the lower atmosphere for a ground-based instrument. This would not be the case for some nadir-viewing lidars, and the application of the algorithm to airborne and satellite datasets is speculated.

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Simone Lolli
,
Ellsworth J. Welton
, and
James R. Campbell

Abstract

This paper investigates multiwavelength retrievals of median equivolumetric drop diameter D 0 suitable for drizzle and light rain, through collocated 355-/527-nm Micropulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) observations collected during precipitation occurring 9 May 2012 at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) project site. By applying a previously developed retrieval technique for infrared bands, the method exploits the differential backscatter by liquid water at 355 and 527 nm for water drops larger than ≈50 μm. In the absence of molecular and aerosol scattering and neglecting any transmission losses, the ratio of the backscattering profiles at the two wavelengths (355 and 527 nm), measured from light rain below the cloud melting layer, can be described as a color ratio, which is directly related to D 0. The uncertainty associated with this method is related to the unknown shape of the drop size spectrum and to the measurement error. Molecular and aerosol scattering contributions and relative transmission losses due to the various atmospheric constituents should be evaluated to derive D 0 from the observed color ratio profiles. This process is responsible for increasing the uncertainty in the retrieval. Multiple scattering, especially for UV lidar, is another source of error, but it exhibits lower overall uncertainty with respect to other identified error sources. It is found that the total error upper limit on D 0 approaches 50%. The impact of this retrieval for long-term MPLNET monitoring and its global data archive is discussed.

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James R. Campbell
,
Simone Lolli
,
Jasper R. Lewis
,
Yu Gu
, and
Ellsworth J. Welton

Abstract

One year of continuous ground-based lidar observations (2012) is analyzed for single-layer cirrus clouds at the NASA Micro Pulse Lidar Network site at the Goddard Space Flight Center to investigate top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) annual net daytime radiative forcing properties. A slight positive net daytime forcing is estimated (i.e., warming): 0.07–0.67 W m−2 in sample-relative terms, which reduces to 0.03–0.27 W m−2 in absolute terms after normalizing to unity based on a 40% midlatitude occurrence frequency rate estimated from satellite data. Results are based on bookend solutions for lidar extinction-to-backscatter (20 and 30 sr) and corresponding retrievals of the 532-nm cloud extinction coefficient. Uncertainties due to cloud undersampling, attenuation effects, sample selection, and lidar multiple scattering are described. A net daytime cooling effect is found from the very thinnest clouds (cloud optical depth ≤ 0.01), which is attributed to relatively high solar zenith angles. A relationship involving positive/negative daytime cloud forcing is demonstrated as a function of solar zenith angle and cloud-top temperature. These properties, combined with the influence of varying surface albedos, are used to conceptualize how daytime cloud forcing likely varies with latitude and season, with cirrus clouds exerting less positive forcing and potentially net TOA cooling approaching the summer poles (not ice and snow covered) versus greater warming at the equator. The existence of such a gradient would lead cirrus to induce varying daytime TOA forcing annually and seasonally, making it a far greater challenge than presently believed to constrain the daytime and diurnal cirrus contributions to global radiation budgets.

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Jasper R. Lewis
,
James R. Campbell
,
Ellsworth J. Welton
,
Sebastian A. Stewart
, and
Phillip C. Haftings

Abstract

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Micro Pulse Lidar Network, version 3, cloud detection algorithm is described and differences relative to the previous version are highlighted. Clouds are identified from normalized level 1 signal profiles using two complementary methods. The first method considers vertical signal derivatives for detecting low-level clouds. The second method, which detects high-level clouds like cirrus, is based on signal uncertainties necessitated by the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio exhibited in the upper troposphere by eye-safe network instruments, especially during daytime. Furthermore, a multitemporal averaging scheme is used to improve cloud detection under conditions of a weak signal-to-noise ratio. Diurnal and seasonal cycles of cloud occurrence frequency based on one year of measurements at the Goddard Space Flight Center (Greenbelt, Maryland) site are compared for the new and previous versions. The largest differences, and perceived improvement, in detection occurs for high clouds (above 5 km, above MSL), which increase in occurrence by over 5%. There is also an increase in the detection of multilayered cloud profiles from 9% to 19%. Macrophysical properties and estimates of cloud optical depth are presented for a transparent cirrus dataset. However, the limit to which the cirrus cloud optical depth could be reliably estimated occurs between 0.5 and 0.8. A comparison using collocated CALIPSO measurements at the Goddard Space Flight Center and Singapore Micro Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) sites indicates improvements in cloud occurrence frequencies and layer heights.

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Leah S. Campbell
,
W. James Steenburgh
,
Peter G. Veals
,
Theodore W. Letcher
, and
Justin R. Minder

Abstract

Improved understanding of the influence of orography on lake-effect storms is crucial for weather forecasting in many lake-effect regions. The Tug Hill Plateau of northern New York (hereafter Tug Hill), rising 500 m above eastern Lake Ontario, experiences some of the most intense snowstorms in the world. Herein the authors investigate the enhancement of lake-effect snowfall over Tug Hill during IOP2b of the Ontario Winter Lake-effect Systems (OWLeS) field campaign. During the 24-h study period, total liquid precipitation equivalent along the axis of maximum precipitation increased from 33.5 mm at a lowland (145 m MSL) site to 62.5 mm at an upland (385 m MSL) site, the latter yielding 101.5 cm of snow. However, the ratio of upland to lowland precipitation, or orographic ratio, varied with the mode of lake-effect precipitation. Strongly organized long-lake-axis parallel bands, some of which formed in association with the approach or passage of upper-level short-wave troughs, produced the highest precipitation rates but the smallest orographic ratios. Within these bands, radar echoes were deepest and strongest over Lake Ontario and the coastal lowlands and decreased in depth and median intensity over Tug Hill. In contrast, nonbanded broad-coverage periods exhibited the smallest precipitation rates and the largest orographic ratios, the latter reflecting an increase in the coverage and frequency of radar echoes over Tug Hill. These findings should aid operational forecasts and, given the predominance of broad-coverage lake-effect periods during the cool season, help explain the climatological snowfall maximum found over the Tug Hill Plateau.

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Justin R. Minder
,
Theodore W. Letcher
,
Leah S. Campbell
,
Peter G. Veals
, and
W. James Steenburgh

Abstract

A pronounced snowfall maximum occurs about 30 km downwind of Lake Ontario over the 600-m-high Tug Hill Plateau (hereafter Tug Hill), a region where lake-effect convection is affected by mesoscale forcing associated with landfall and orographic uplift. Profiling radar data from the Ontario Winter Lake-effect Systems field campaign are used to characterize the inland evolution of lake-effect convection that produces the Tug Hill snowfall maximum. Four K-band profiling Micro Rain Radars (MRRs) were aligned in a transect from the Ontario coast onto Tug Hill. Additional observations were provided by an X-band profiling radar (XPR). Analysis is presented of a major lake-effect storm that produced 6.4-cm liquid precipitation equivalent (LPE) snowfall over Tug Hill. This event exhibited strong inland enhancement, with LPE increasing by a factor of 1.9 over 15-km horizontal distance. MRR profiles reveal that this enhancement was not due to increases in the depth or intensity of lake-effect convection. With increasing inland distance, echoes transitioned from a convective toward a stratiform morphology, becoming less intense, more uniform, more frequent, and less turbulent. An inland increase in echo frequency (possibly orographically forced) contributes somewhat to snowfall enhancement. The XPR observations reproduce the basic vertical structure seen by the MRRs while also revealing a suppression of snowfall below 600 m AGL upwind of Tug Hill, possibly associated with subcloud sublimation or hydrometeor advection. Statistics from 29 events demonstrate that the above-described inland evolution of convection is common for lake-effect storms east of Lake Ontario.

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Erica K. Dolinar
,
James R. Campbell
,
Jared W. Marquis
,
Anne E. Garnier
, and
Bryan M. Karpowicz

Abstract

Satellite-based measurements of global ice cloud microphysical properties are sampled to develop a novel set of physical parameterizations, relating to cloud layer temperature and effective diameter De , that can be implemented for two separate applications: in numerical weather prediction models and lidar-based cloud radiative forcing studies. Ice cloud optical properties (i.e., spectral scattering and absorption) are estimated based on the effective size and habit mixture of the cloud particles. Historically, the ice cloud De has been parameterized from aircraft in situ measurements. However, aircraft-based parameterizations are opportunistic in that they only represent specific types of clouds (e.g., convective anvil, tropopause-topped cirrus) in the regions in which they were sampled and, in some cases, are limited in fully resolving the entire vertical cloud layer. Breaking away from the aircraft-based parameterization paradigm, this study is the first of its kind to attempt a parameterization of De as a function of temperature, ice water content (IWC), and lidar-derived extinction from satellite-based global oceanic measurements of ice clouds. Data from both active and passive remote sensing sensors from two of NASA’s A-Train satellites, CloudSat and CALIPSO, are collected to guide development of globally robust parameterizations of all ice cloud types and one exclusively for cirrus clouds.

Significance Statement

We derived unique parameterizations of ice crystal effective size from global satellite measurements in an effort to more robustly and consistently represent ice clouds in numerical models for weather forecasting and climate energy balance studies. Based on our results, effective ice crystal size is easily solved based on temperature and visible cloud translucence. By knowing the size of the ice crystals, we can then estimate cloud scattering and absorption. In comparison with aircraft-based parameterizations, the satellite data reveal that ice crystal effective sizes are much smaller, on global average, for ice clouds occurring in relatively warm layers (>230 K), indicating that many ice clouds are more reflective than previously believed.

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Kenneth Sassen
,
James R. Campbell
,
Jiang Zhu
,
Pavlos Kollias
,
Matthew Shupe
, and
Christopher Williams

Abstract

During the recent Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers (CRYSTAL) Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (FACE) field campaign in southern Florida, rain showers were probed by a 0.523-μm lidar and three (0.32-, 0.86-, and 10.6-cm wavelength) Doppler radars. The full repertoire of backscattering phenomena was observed in the melting region, that is, the various lidar and radar dark and bright bands. In contrast to the ubiquitous 10.6-cm (S band) radar bright band, only intermittent evidence is found at 0.86 cm (K band), and no clear examples of the radar bright band are seen at 0.32 cm (W band), because of the dominance of non-Rayleigh scattering effects. Analysis also reveals that the relatively inconspicuous W-band radar dark band is due to non-Rayleigh effects in large water-coated snowflakes that are high in the melting layer. The lidar dark band exclusively involves mixed-phase particles and is centered where the shrinking snowflakes collapse into raindrops—the point at which spherical particle backscattering mechanisms first come into prominence during snowflake melting. The traditional (S band) radar brightband peak occurs low in the melting region, just above the lidar dark-band minimum. This position is close to where the W-band reflectivities and Doppler velocities reach their plateaus but is well above the height at which the S-band Doppler velocities stop increasing. Thus, the classic radar bright band is dominated by Rayleigh dielectric scattering effects in the few largest melting snowflakes.

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David A. Peterson
,
Edward J. Hyer
,
James R. Campbell
,
Jeremy E. Solbrig
, and
Michael D. Fromm

Abstract

The first observationally based conceptual model for intense pyrocumulonimbus (pyroCb) development is described by applying reanalyzed meteorological model output to an inventory of 26 intense pyroCb events from June to August 2013 and a control inventory of intense fire activity without pyroCb. Results are based on 88 intense wildfires observed within the western United States and Canada. While surface-based fire weather indices are a useful indicator of intense fire activity, they are not a skillful predictor of intense pyroCb. Development occurs when a layer of increased moisture content and instability is advected over a dry, deep, and unstable mixed layer, typically along the leading edge of an approaching disturbance or under the influence of a monsoonal anticyclone. Upper-tropospheric dynamics are conducive to rising motion and vertical convective development. Mid- and upper-tropospheric conditions therefore resemble those that produce traditional dry thunderstorms. The specific quantity of midlevel moisture and instability required is shown to be strongly dependent on the surface elevation of the contributing fire. Increased thermal buoyancy from large and intense wildfires can serve as a potential trigger, implying that pyroCb occasionally develop in the absence of traditional meteorological triggering mechanisms. This conceptual model suggests that meteorological conditions favorable for pyroCb are observed regularly in western North America. PyroCb and ensuing stratospheric smoke injection are therefore likely to be significant and endemic features of summer climate. Results from this study provide a major step toward improved detection, monitoring, and prediction of pyroCb, which will ultimately enable improved understanding of the role of this phenomenon in the climate system.

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