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  • Author or Editor: James Taylor x
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Peter A. Taylor
and
James R. Salmon

Abstract

Wakes behind 2D fences and 3D obstacles are reviewed with special emphasis on reduced mean wind speeds and sheltering effects. Based partly on Perera's study of wakes behind 2D fences, and assuming a Gaussian spread for wakes behind 3D obstacles, a shelter model is proposed and tested. The shelter produced depends on a wake moment coefficient k which appears to be significantly less for 3D obstacles than for 2D fences. The model provides a simple basis on which to “correct” anemometer data for sheltering effects associated with upstream obstacles. Such corrections are an important step in the generation of improved surface wind climatologies and wind atlases.

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James J. Fuquay
,
Charles L. Simpson
,
Morton L. Barad
, and
John H. Taylor

Abstract

During the summer of 1959, the Green Glow program, consisting of 26 diffusion experiments during nocturnal inversions, was conducted at the Atomic Energy Commission's Hanford Site near Richland, Wash. The tracer, zinc sulfide, was released near ground level. Samplers were placed at 1.5 m above ground at 533 positions on six sampling arcs, the radii of which were 200 m, 800 m, 1.6 km, 3.2 km, 12.8 km, and 25.6 km. In addition to the ground sampling network, poles or towers were erected at 5 points, 8 deg apart, on each of the 4 inner arcs. Fifteen samplers were mounted on each pole or tower, the top level increasing from 27 m on the 200-m arc to 62 m on the 1.6-km and 3.2-km arcs.

General aspects of the experimental design and tracer technique are discussed along with terrain characteristics and meteorological conditions pertinent to these experiments. Experimental results are presented showing the increase in horizontal plume width and decrease of maximum exposure with distance from the source. An analysis of the area enclosed within a given exposure isopleth is summarized. The effect of significant wind direction shear on the vertical distributions of exposure is discussed. Results from the Green Glow experiments are compared with those from earlier diffusion experiments at O'Neil, Nebr., and later experiments at Hanford.

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Andrew J. Tanentzap
,
Peter A. Taylor
,
Norman D. Yan
, and
James R. Salmon

Abstract

A 34% reduction in 10-m wind speeds at Sudbury Airport in Ontario, Canada, over the period 1975–95 appears to be a result of significant changes in the surface roughness of the surrounding area that are due to land restoration and reforestation following historical environmental damage caused by high sulfur dioxide and other industrial emissions. Neither 850-hPa winds extracted from the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis database nor wind measurements at meteorological stations 200 km to the north and 120 km to the east of Sudbury show the same decrease. To assess these changes in observed wind speed quantitatively, geostrophic drag laws were employed to illustrate potential changes in near-surface wind speeds in areas surrounding the airport. A model of the internal boundary layer flow adjustment associated with changes in the surface roughness length between the surroundings and the grass or snow surface of the airport was then applied to compute expected annual average wind speeds at the airport site itself. The estimates obtained with this relatively simple procedure match the observations and confirm that reforestation is likely the major cause of the reduced wind speeds. This finding bears economic, social, and ecological importance, because it will influence wind energy potential, wind loads on structures, wind chill, and home heating costs through to the biology of small- to medium-sized lakes.

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