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  • Author or Editor: Jeffrey D. Paduan x
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Kenneth Laws, Jeffrey D. Paduan, and John Vesecky


A simulation-based investigation of errors in HF radar–derived, near-surface ocean current measurements is presented. The simulation model is specific to Coastal Ocean Dynamics Application Radar (CODAR) SeaSonde radar systems that employ a compact, collocated antenna geometry. In this study, radial current retrievals are obtained by processing simulated data using unmodified CODAR data processing software. To avoid limiting the results to specific ocean current and wind wave scenarios, the analyses employ large ensembles of randomly varying simulated environmental conditions. The effect of antenna pattern distortion on the accuracy of retrievals is investigated using 40 different antenna sensitivity patterns of varying levels of distortion. A single parameter is derived to describe the level of the antenna pattern distortion. This parameter is found to be highly correlated with the rms error of the simulated radial currents (r = 0.94) and therefore can be used as a basis for evaluating the severity of site-specific antenna pattern distortions. Ensemble averages of the subperiod simulated current retrieval standard deviations are found to be highly correlated with the antenna pattern distortion parameter (r = 0.92). Simulations without distortions of the antenna pattern indicate that an rms radial current error of 2.9 cm s−1 is a minimum bound on the error of a SeaSonde ocean radar system, given a typical set of operating parameters and a generalized ensemble of ocean conditions.

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Igor Shulman, Steven H. D. Haddock, Dennis J. McGillicuddy Jr., Jeffrey D. Paduan, and W. Paul Bissett


Bioluminescence (BL) predictability experiments (predictions of the intensity, depth, and distance offshore of the BL maximum) were conducted using an advective–diffusive tracer model with velocities and diffusivities from a fine-resolution model of the Monterey Bay, California, area. For tracer initialization, observations were assimilated into the tracer model while velocities and diffusivities were taken from the hydrodynamic model and kept unchanged during the initialization process. This dynamic initialization procedure provides an equilibrium tracer distribution that is balanced with the velocity and diffusivity fields from the hydrodynamic model. This equilibrium BL distribution was used as the initial BL field for 3 days of prognostic calculations. Two cross-shore surveys of bioluminescence data conducted at two locations (north of the bay and inside the bay) were used in four numerical experiments designed to estimate the limits of bioluminescence predictions by tracers. The cross-shore sections extended to around 25 km offshore, they were around 30 m deep, and on average they were approximately 35 km apart from each other. Bioluminescence predictability experiments demonstrated a strong utility of the tracer model (combined with limited bioluminescence observations and with the output from a circulation model) in predicting (over a 72-h period and over 25–35-km distances) the location and intensity of the BL maximum. Analysis of the model velocity fields and observed and model-predicted bioluminesence fields shows that the BL maximum is located in the frontal area representing a strong reversal of flow direction.

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