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Ji-Eun Kim
and
M. Joan Alexander

Abstract

Tropical precipitation characteristics are investigated using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3-hourly estimates, and the result is compared with five reanalyses including the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim), Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis (NCEP1), NCEP–U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis (NCEP2), and NCEP–Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR). Precipitation characteristics are evaluated in terms of the mean, convectively coupled equatorial wave activity, frequency characteristics, diurnal cycle, and seasonality of regional precipitation variability associated with submonthly scale waves. Generally the latest reanalyses such as ERA-Interim, MERRA, and CFSR show better performances than NCEP1 and NCEP2. However, all the reanalyses are still different from observations. Besides the positive mean bias in the reanalyses, a spectral analysis revealed that the reanalyses have overreddened spectra with persistent rainfall. MERRA has the most persistent rainfall, and CFSR appears to have the most realistic variability. The diurnal cycle in NCEP1 is extremely exaggerated relative to TRMM. The low-frequency waves with the period longer than 3 days are relatively well represented in ERA-Interim, MERRA, and CFSR, but all the reanalyses have significant deficiencies in representing convectively coupled equatorial waves and variability in the high-frequency range.

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Ryohei Yamaguchi
,
Ji-Eun Kim
,
Keith B. Rodgers
,
Karl Stein
,
Axel Timmermann
,
Sun-Seon Lee
,
Lei Huang
,
Malte F. Stuecker
,
John T. Fasullo
,
Gokhan Danabasoglu
,
Clara Deser
,
Jean-Francois Lamarque
,
Nan A. Rosenbloom
, and
Jim Edwards

Abstract

Biomass burning aerosol (BBA) emissions in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 (CMIP6) historical forcing fields have enhanced temporal variability during the years 1997–2014 compared to earlier periods. Recent studies document that the corresponding inhomogeneous shortwave forcing over this period can cause changes in clouds, permafrost, and soil moisture, which contribute to a net terrestrial Northern Hemisphere warming relative to earlier periods. Here, we investigate the ocean response to the hemispherically asymmetric warming, using a 100-member ensemble of the Community Earth System Model version 2 Large Ensemble forced by two different BBA emissions (CMIP6 default and temporally smoothed over 1990–2020). Differences between the two subensemble means show that ocean temperature anomalies occur during periods of high BBA variability and subsequently persist over multiple decades. In the North Atlantic, surface warming is efficiently compensated for by decreased northward oceanic heat transport due to a slowdown of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. In the North Pacific, surface warming is compensated for by an anomalous cross-equatorial cell (CEC) that reduces northward oceanic heat transport. The heat that converges in the South Pacific through the anomalous CEC is shunted into the subsurface and contributes to formation of long-lasting ocean temperature anomalies. The anomalous CEC is maintained through latitude-dependent contributions from narrow western boundary currents and basinwide near-surface Ekman transport. These results indicate that interannual variability in forcing fields may significantly change the background climate state over long time scales, presenting a potential uncertainty in CMIP6-class climate projections forced without interannual variability.

Open access