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  • Author or Editor: Jia Wang x
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Xuezhi Bai, Jia Wang, Qinzheng Liu, Dongxiao Wang, and Yu Liu

Abstract

This study investigates the causes of severe ice conditions over the Bohai Sea, China, and mild ice cover over the North American Great Lakes under the same hemispheric climate patterns during the 2009/10 winter with a strong negative Arctic Oscillation (AO) and an El Niño event. The main cause of severe ice cover over the Bohai Sea was the strong negative AO. Six of seven winters with severe ice were associated with a strong negative AO during the period 1954–2010. The Siberian high (SH) in the 2009/10 winter was close to normal. The influence of El Niño on the Bohai Sea was not significant. In contrast, the mild ice conditions in the Great Lakes were mainly caused by the strong El Niño event. Although the negative AO generally produces significant colder surface air temperature (SAT) and heavy ice cover over the Great Lakes, when it coincided with a strong El Niño event during the 2009/10 winter the El Niño–induced Pacific–North America (PNA)-like pattern dominated the midlatitudes and was responsible for the flattening of the ridge–trough system over North America, leading to warmer-than-normal temperatures and mild ice conditions over the Great Lakes. This comparative study revealed that interannual variability of SAT in North America, including the Great Lakes, is effectively influenced by El Niño events through a PNA or PNA-like pattern whereas the interannual variability of SAT in northeastern China, including the Bohai Sea area, was mainly controlled by AO and SH.

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Ying-Hui Jia, Fang-Fang Li, Kun Fang, Guang-Qian Wang, and Jun Qiu

Abstract

Recently strong sound wave was proposed to enhance precipitation. The theoretical basis of this proposal has not been effectively studied either experimentally or theoretically. Based on the microscopic parameters of atmospheric cloud physics, this paper solved the complex nonlinear differential equation to show the movement characteristics of cloud droplets under the action of sound waves. The motion process of individual cloud droplet in a cloud layer in the acoustic field is discussed as well as the relative motion between two cloud droplets. The effects of different particle sizes and sound field characteristics on particle motion and collision are studied to analyze the dynamic effects of thunder-level sound waves on cloud droplets. The amplitude of velocity variation has positive correlation with Sound Pressure Level (SPL) and negative correlation with the frequency of the surrounding sound field. Under the action of low-frequency sound waves with sufficient intensity, individual cloud droplets could be forced to oscillate significantly. The droplet smaller than 40μm can be easily driven by sound waves of 50 Hz and 123.4 dB. The calculation of the collision process of two droplets reveals that the disorder of motion for polydisperse droplets is intensified, resulting in the broadening of the collision time range and spatial range. When the acoustic frequency is less than 100Hz (@ 123.4dB) or the Sound Pressure Level (SPL) is greater than 117.4dB (@ 50Hz), the sound wave can affect the collision of cloud droplets significantly. This study provides theoretical perspective of acoustic effect to the microphysics of atmospheric clouds.

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