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  • Author or Editor: Jochen Stutz x
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Changhyoun Park
,
Christoph Gerbig
,
Sally Newman
,
Ravan Ahmadov
,
Sha Feng
,
Kevin R. Gurney
,
Gregory R Carmichael
,
Soon-Young Park
,
Hwa-Woon Lee
,
Mike Goulden
,
Jochen Stutz
,
Jeff Peischl
, and
Tom Ryerson

Abstract

To study regional-scale carbon dioxide (CO2) transport, temporal variability, and budget over the Southern California Air Basin (SoCAB) during the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) 2010 campaign period, a model that couples the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model with the Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model (VPRM) has been used. Our numerical simulations use anthropogenic CO2 emissions of the Hestia Project 2010 fossil-fuel CO2 emissions data products along with optimized VPRM parameters at “FLUXNET” sites, for biospheric CO2 fluxes over SoCAB. The simulated meteorological conditions have been validated with ground and aircraft observations, as well as with background CO2 concentrations from the coastal Palos Verdes site. The model captures the temporal pattern of CO2 concentrations at the ground site at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, but it overestimates the magnitude in early daytime. Analysis of CO2 by wind directions reveals the overestimate is due to advection from the south and southwest, where downtown Los Angeles is located. The model also captures the vertical profile of CO2 concentrations along with the flight tracks. The optimized VPRM parameters have significantly improved simulated net ecosystem exchange at each vegetation-class site and thus the regional CO2 budget. The total biospheric contribution ranges approximately from −24% to −20% (daytime) of the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions during the study period.

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Annmarie G. Carlton
,
Joost de Gouw
,
Jose L. Jimenez
,
Jesse L. Ambrose
,
Alexis R. Attwood
,
Steven Brown
,
Kirk R. Baker
,
Charles Brock
,
Ronald C. Cohen
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Sylvia Edgerton
,
Caroline M. Farkas
,
Delphine Farmer
,
Allen H. Goldstein
,
Lynne Gratz
,
Alex Guenther
,
Sherri Hunt
,
Lyatt Jaeglé
,
Daniel A. Jaffe
,
John Mak
,
Crystal McClure
,
Athanasios Nenes
,
Thien Khoi Nguyen
,
Jeffrey R. Pierce
,
Suzane de Sa
,
Noelle E. Selin
,
Viral Shah
,
Stephanie Shaw
,
Paul B. Shepson
,
Shaojie Song
,
Jochen Stutz
,
Jason D. Surratt
,
Barbara J. Turpin
,
Carsten Warneke
,
Rebecca A. Washenfelder
,
Paul O. Wennberg
, and
Xianling Zhou

Abstract

The Southeast Atmosphere Studies (SAS), which included the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS); the Southeast Nexus (SENEX) study; and the Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury and Aerosols: Distributions, Sources and Sinks (NOMADSS) study, was deployed in the field from 1 June to 15 July 2013 in the central and eastern United States, and it overlapped with and was complemented by the Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) campaign. SAS investigated atmospheric chemistry and the associated air quality and climate-relevant particle properties. Coordinated measurements from six ground sites, four aircraft, tall towers, balloon-borne sondes, existing surface networks, and satellites provide in situ and remotely sensed data on trace-gas composition, aerosol physicochemical properties, and local and synoptic meteorology. Selected SAS findings indicate 1) dramatically reduced NOx concentrations have altered ozone production regimes; 2) indicators of “biogenic” secondary organic aerosol (SOA), once considered part of the natural background, were positively correlated with one or more indicators of anthropogenic pollution; and 3) liquid water dramatically impacted particle scattering while biogenic SOA did not. SAS findings suggest that atmosphere–biosphere interactions modulate ambient pollutant concentrations through complex mechanisms and feedbacks not yet adequately captured in atmospheric models. The SAS dataset, now publicly available, is a powerful constraint to develop predictive capability that enhances model representation of the response and subsequent impacts of changes in atmospheric composition to changes in emissions, chemistry, and meteorology.

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A. Gannet Hallar
,
Steven S. Brown
,
Erik Crosman
,
Kelley C. Barsanti
,
Christopher D. Cappa
,
Ian Faloona
,
Jerome Fast
,
Heather A. Holmes
,
John Horel
,
John Lin
,
Ann Middlebrook
,
Logan Mitchell
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Jennifer Murphy
,
Caroline C. Womack
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Viney Aneja
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Munkhbayar Baasandorj
,
Roya Bahreini
,
Robert Banta
,
Casey Bray
,
Alan Brewer
,
Dana Caulton
,
Joost de Gouw
,
Stephan F.J. De Wekker
,
Delphine K. Farmer
,
Cassandra J. Gaston
,
Sebastian Hoch
,
Francesca Hopkins
,
Nakul N. Karle
,
James T. Kelly
,
Kerry Kelly
,
Neil Lareau
,
Keding Lu
,
Roy L. Mauldin III
,
Derek V. Mallia
,
Randal Martin
,
Daniel L. Mendoza
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Holly J. Oldroyd
,
Yelena Pichugina
,
Kerri A. Pratt
,
Pablo E. Saide
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Philip J. Silva
,
William Simpson
,
Britton B. Stephens
,
Jochen Stutz
, and
Amy Sullivan

Abstract

Wintertime episodes of high aerosol concentrations occur frequently in urban and agricultural basins and valleys worldwide. These episodes often arise following development of persistent cold-air pools (PCAPs) that limit mixing and modify chemistry. While field campaigns targeting either basin meteorology or wintertime pollution chemistry have been conducted, coupling between interconnected chemical and meteorological processes remains an insufficiently studied research area. Gaps in understanding the coupled chemical–meteorological interactions that drive high-pollution events make identification of the most effective air-basin specific emission control strategies challenging. To address this, a September 2019 workshop occurred with the goal of planning a future research campaign to investigate air quality in western U.S. basins. Approximately 120 people participated, representing 50 institutions and five countries. Workshop participants outlined the rationale and design for a comprehensive wintertime study that would couple atmospheric chemistry and boundary layer and complex-terrain meteorology within western U.S. basins. Participants concluded the study should focus on two regions with contrasting aerosol chemistry: three populated valleys within Utah (Salt Lake, Utah, and Cache Valleys) and the San Joaquin Valley in California. This paper describes the scientific rationale for a campaign that will acquire chemical and meteorological datasets using airborne platforms with extensive range, coupled to surface-based measurements focusing on sampling within the near-surface boundary layer, and transport and mixing processes within this layer, with high vertical resolution at a number of representative sites. No prior wintertime basin-focused campaign has provided the breadth of observations necessary to characterize the meteorological–chemical linkages outlined here, nor to validate complex processes within coupled atmosphere–chemistry models.

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Eric J. Jensen
,
Leonhard Pfister
,
David E. Jordan
,
Thaopaul V. Bui
,
Rei Ueyama
,
Hanwant B. Singh
,
Troy D. Thornberry
,
Andrew W. Rollins
,
Ru-Shan Gao
,
David W. Fahey
,
Karen H. Rosenlof
,
James W. Elkins
,
Glenn S. Diskin
,
Joshua P. DiGangi
,
R. Paul Lawson
,
Sarah Woods
,
Elliot L. Atlas
,
Maria A. Navarro Rodriguez
,
Steven C. Wofsy
,
Jasna Pittman
,
Charles G. Bardeen
,
Owen B. Toon
,
Bruce C. Kindel
,
Paul A. Newman
,
Matthew J. McGill
,
Dennis L. Hlavka
,
Leslie R. Lait
,
Mark R. Schoeberl
,
John W. Bergman
,
Henry B. Selkirk
,
M. Joan Alexander
,
Ji-Eun Kim
,
Boon H. Lim
,
Jochen Stutz
, and
Klaus Pfeilsticker

Abstract

The February–March 2014 deployment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) provided unique in situ measurements in the western Pacific tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Six flights were conducted from Guam with the long-range, high-altitude, unmanned Global Hawk aircraft. The ATTREX Global Hawk payload provided measurements of water vapor, meteorological conditions, cloud properties, tracer and chemical radical concentrations, and radiative fluxes. The campaign was partially coincident with the Convective Transport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) and the Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) airborne campaigns based in Guam using lower-altitude aircraft (see companion articles in this issue). The ATTREX dataset is being used for investigations of TTL cloud, transport, dynamical, and chemical processes, as well as for evaluation and improvement of global-model representations of TTL processes. The ATTREX data are publicly available online (at https://espoarchive.nasa.gov/).

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