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  • Author or Editor: John A. Dutton x
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Donald H. Lenschow and John A. Dutton

Abstract

The problems and advantages of the bolometric method of measuring surface temperature from an airplane are discussed. It is shown that the airborne bolometer measures a weighted area-mean temperature which is a function of the surface temperature distribution and emissivity. For the employed wavelength of radiation (in the atmospheric “window”), the effect of atmospheric absorptivity is negligible under ordinary conditions for altitudes of 300 m or less, but can be an important consideration for flight levels above 300 m. From a series of flights over Southwestern Wisconsin it is concluded that the diurnal variation of surface temperature is greatest in flat farmland and sandy field areas, where a maximum difference of 29C occurred. Hilly woods and fields showed the smallest diurnal variation, with a maximum of 14C. The maximum standard deviation occurred in flat farmland area, with a value of 6C. A swampy area had a maximum value of 2C for a standard deviation.

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Hans A. Panofsky, John A. Dutton, Kurt H. Hemmerich, G. McCreary, and N. V. Loving

Abstract

Two separate case studies of clear air turbulence are presented, one in the stratosphere over the Rocky Mountains, the other in the upper troposphere over the midwestern plains.

The mechanism in both situations appears to be similar. CAT occurs in strongly baroclinic zones with strong vertical wind shears and low Richardson numbers. There is a tendency for the most severe turbulence to be located at the edges of the baroclinic zones.

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