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John M. Hanesiak
Ronald E. Stewart
Kit K. Szeto
David R. Hudak
, and
Henry G. Leighton


On 30 September 1994 an Arctic low pressure system passed over the southern Beaufort Sea area of northern Canada and research aircraft observations were made within and around the warm front of the storm. This study is unique in that the warm front contained subzero centigrade temperatures across the entire frontal region. The overall structure of the warm front and surrounding region was similar to midlatitude storms; however, the precipitation rates, liquid water content magnitudes, horizontal and vertical winds, vertical wind shear, turbulence, and thermal advection were very weak. In addition, a low-level jet and cloud bands were aligned parallel to the warm front, near-neutral stability occurred within and around the front, and conditional symmetric instability was likely occurring. A steep frontal region resulted from strong Coriolis influences that in turn limited the amount of cloud and precipitation ahead of the system. The precipitation efficiency of the storm was high (60%) but is believed to be highly dependent on the stage of development. The mesoscale frontogenetic forcing was primarily controlled by the tilting of isentropic surfaces with confluence/convergence being the secondary influence. Sublimation contributions may have been large in the earlier stages of storm development. Satellite and aircraft radiometers underestimated cloud top heights by as much as 4 km and this was mostly due to the near transparency of the lofted ice layer in the upper portion of the storm. Maximum surface solar radiation deficits ranged between 91 W m−2 and 187 W m−2 at two surface observing sites. This common type of cloud system must have a major impact on the water and energy cycles of northern Canada in the autumn and therefore must be well accounted for within climate models.

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