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  • Author or Editor: John L. Schroeder x
  • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology x
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Brian D. Hirth
and
John L. Schroeder

Abstract

High-spatial-and-temporal-resolution radial velocity measurements surrounding a single utility-scale wind turbine were collected using the Texas Tech University Ka-band mobile research radars. The measurements were synthesized to construct the first known dual-Doppler analyses of the mean structure and variability of a single turbine wake. The observations revealed a wake length that subjectively exceeded 20 rotor diameters, which far exceeds the typically employed turbine spacing of 7–10 rotor diameters. The mean horizontal wind speed deficits found within the turbine wake region relative to the free streamflow were related to potential reductions in the available power for a downwind turbine. Mean wind speed reductions of 17.4% (14.8%) were found at 7 (10) rotor diameters downwind, corresponding to a potential power output reduction of 43.6% (38.2%). The wind speed deficits found within the wake also exhibit large variability over short time intervals; this variability would have an appreciable impact on the inflow of a downstream turbine. The full understanding and application of these newly collected data have the potential to alter current wind-farm design and layout practices and to affect the cost of energy.

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James B. Duncan Jr.
,
Brian D. Hirth
, and
John L. Schroeder

Abstract

Remote sensing instruments that scan have the ability to provide high-resolution spatial measurements of atmospheric boundary layer winds across a region. However, the time required to collect the volume of measurements used to produce this spatial representation of atmospheric winds typically limits the extraction of atmospheric turbulence information using traditional temporal analysis techniques. To overcome this constraint, a spatial turbulence intensity (STI) metric was developed to quantify atmospheric turbulence intensity (TI) through analysis of spatial wind field variability. The methods used to determine STI can be applied throughout the measurement domain to transform the spatially distributed velocity fields to analogous measurement maps of STI. This method enables a comprehensive spatial characterization of atmospheric TI. STI efficacy was examined across a range of wind speeds and atmospheric stability regimes using both single- and dual-Doppler measurements. STI demonstrated the ability to capture rapid fluctuations in TI and was able to discern large-scale TI trends consistent with the early evening transition. The ability to spatially depict atmospheric TI could benefit a variety of research disciplines such as the wind energy industry, where an understanding of wind plant complex flow spatiotemporal variability is limited.

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Brian C. Zachry
,
John L. Schroeder
,
Andrew B. Kennedy
,
Joannes J. Westerink
,
Chris W. Letchford
, and
Mark E. Hope

Abstract

Over the past decade, numerous field campaigns and laboratory experiments have examined air–sea momentum exchange in the deep ocean. These studies have changed the understanding of drag coefficient behavior in hurricane force winds, with a general consensus that a limiting value is reached. Near the shore, wave conditions are markedly different than in deep water because of wave shoaling and breaking processes, but only very limited data exist to assess drag coefficient behavior. Yet, knowledge of the wind stress in this region is critical for storm surge forecasting, evaluating the low-level wind field across the coastal transition zone, and informing the wind load standard along the hurricane-prone coastline. During Hurricane Ike (2008), a Texas Tech University StickNet platform obtained wind measurements in marine exposure with a fetch across the Houston ship channel. These data were used to estimate drag coefficient dependence on wind speed. Wave conditions in the ship channel and surge level at the StickNet location were simulated using the Simulating Waves Nearshore Model coupled to the Advanced Circulation Model. The simulated waves were indicative of a fetch-limited condition with maximum significant wave heights reaching 1.5 m and peak periods of 4 s. A maximum surge depth of 0.6 m inundated the StickNet. Similar to deep water studies, findings indicate that the drag coefficient reaches a limiting value at wind speeds near hurricane force. However, at wind speeds below hurricane force, the drag coefficient is higher than that of deep water datasets, particularly at the slowest wind speeds.

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Ian M. Giammanco
,
John L. Schroeder
,
Forrest J. Masters
,
Peter J. Vickery
,
Richard J. Krupar III
, and
Juan-Antonio Balderrama

Abstract

The deployment of ruggedized surface observing platforms by university research programs in the path of landfalling tropical cyclones has yielded a wealth of information regarding the near-surface wind flow characteristics. Data records collected by Texas Tech University’s Wind Engineering Mobile Instrument Tower Experiment and StickNet probes and by the Florida Coastal Monitoring Program along the Gulf Coast of the United States from 2004 to 2008 were compiled to examine influences on near-surface gust factors. Archived composite reflectivity data from coastal WSR-88D instruments were also merged with the tower records to investigate the influence of precipitation structure. Wind records were partitioned into 10-min segments, and the ratio of the peak moving-average 3-s-gust wind speed to the segment mean was used to define a gust factor. Observations were objectively stratified into terrain exposure categories to determine if factors beyond those associated with surface frictional effects can be extracted from the observations. Wind flow characteristics within exposure classes were weakly influenced by storm-relative position and precipitation structure. Eyewall observations showed little difference in mean gust factors when compared with other regions. In convective precipitation, only peak gust factors were slightly larger than those found in stratiform conditions, with little differences in the mean. Gust factors decreased slightly with decreasing radial distance in rougher terrain exposures and did not respond to radar-observed changes in precipitation structure. In two limited comparisons, near-surface gusts did not exceed the magnitude of the wind maximum aloft detected through wind profiles that were derived from WSR-88D velocity–azimuth displays.

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