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  • Author or Editor: Julien Delanoë x
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Alain Protat
,
Surendra Rauniyar
,
Julien Delanoë
,
Emmanuel Fontaine
, and
Alfons Schwarzenboeck

Abstract

Attenuation of the W-band (95 GHz) radar signal by atmospheric ice particles has long been neglected in cloud microphysics studies. In this work, 95-GHz airborne multibeam cloud radar observations in tropical stratiform ice anvils are used to estimate vertical profiles of 95-GHz attenuation. Two techniques are developed and compared, using very different assumptions. The first technique examines statistical reflectivity differences between repeated aircraft passes through the same cloud mass at different altitudes. The second technique exploits reflectivity differences between two different pathlengths through the same cloud, using the multibeam capabilities of the cloud radar. Using the first technique, the two-way attenuation coefficient produced by stratiform ice particles ranges between 1 and 1.6 dB km−1 for reflectivities between 13 and 18 dBZ, with an expected increase of attenuation with reflectivity. Using the second technique, the multibeam results confirm these high attenuation coefficient values and expand the reflectivity range, with typical attenuation coefficient values of up to 3–4 dB km−1 for reflectivities of 20 dBZ. The potential impact of attenuation on precipitating-ice-cloud microphysics retrievals is quantified using vertical profiles of the mean and the 99th percentile of ice water content derived from noncorrected and attenuation-corrected reflectivities. A large impact is found on the 99th percentile of ice water content, which increases by 0.3–0.4 g m−3 up to 11-km height. Finally, T-matrix calculations of attenuation constrained by measured particle size distributions, ice crystal mass–size, and projected area–size relationships are found to largely underestimate cloud radar attenuation estimates.

Full access
Susana Jorquera
,
Felipe Toledo Bittner
,
Julien Delanoë
,
Alexis Berne
,
Anne-Claire Billault-Roux
,
Alfons Schwarzenboeck
,
Fabien Dezitter
,
Nicolas Viltard
, and
Audrey Martini

Abstract

This article presents a calibration transfer methodology that can be used between radars of the same or different frequency bands. This method enables the absolute calibration of a cloud radar by transferring it from another collocated instrument with known calibration, by simultaneously measuring vertical ice cloud reflectivity profiles. The advantage is that the added uncertainty in the newly calibrated instrument can converge to the magnitude of the reference instrument calibration. This is achieved by carefully selecting comparable data, including the identification of the reflectivity range that avoids the disparities introduced by differences in sensitivity or scattering regime. The result is a correction coefficient used to compensate measurement bias in the uncalibrated instrument. Calibration transfer uncertainty can be reduced by increasing the number of sampling periods. The methodology was applied between collocated W-band radars deployed during the ICE-GENESIS campaign (Switzerland 2020/21). A difference of 2.2 dB was found in their reflectivity measurements, with an uncertainty of 0.7 dB. The calibration transfer was also applied to radars of different frequency, an X-band radar with unknown calibration and a W-band radar with manufacturer calibration; the difference found was −16.7 dB with an uncertainty of 1.2 dB. The method was validated through closure, by transferring calibration between three different radars in two different case studies. For the first case, involving three W-band radars, the bias found was of 0.2 dB. In the second case, involving two W-band and one X-band radar, the bias found was of 0.3 dB. These results imply that the biases introduced by performing the calibration transfer with this method are negligible.

Open access
Julien Delanoë
,
Alain Protat
,
Olivier Jourdan
,
Jacques Pelon
,
Mathieu Papazzoni
,
Régis Dupuy
,
Jean-Francois Gayet
, and
Caroline Jouan

Abstract

This study illustrates the high potential of RALI, the French airborne radar–lidar instrument, for studying cloud processes and evaluating satellite products when satellite overpasses are available. For an Arctic nimbostratus ice cloud collected on 1 April 2008 during the Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate, Chemistry, Aerosols, and Transport (POLARCAT) campaign, the capability of this synergistic instrument to retrieve cloud properties and to characterize the cloud phase at scales smaller than a kilometer, which is crucial for cloud process analysis, is demonstrated. A variational approach, which combines radar and lidar, is used to retrieve the ice-water content (IWC), extinction, and effective radius. The combination of radar and lidar is shown to provide better retrievals than do stand-alone methods and, in general, the radar overestimates and the lidar underestimates IWC. As the sampled ice cloud was simultaneously observed by CloudSat and Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellites, a new way to assess satellite cloud products by combining in situ and active remote sensing measurements is identified. It was then possible to compare RALI to three satellite ice cloud products: CloudSat, CALIPSO, and the Cloud-Aerosol-Water-Radiation Interactions (ICARE) center’s radar–lidar project (DARDAR).

Full access
Julien Delanoë
,
Alain Protat
,
Jean-Paul Vinson
,
Williams Brett
,
Christophe Caudoux
,
Fabrice Bertrand
,
Jacques Parent du Chatelet
,
Ruben Hallali
,
Laurent Barthes
,
Martial Haeffelin
, and
Jean-Charles Dupont

Abstract

Doppler cloud radars are amazing tools to characterize cloud and fog properties and to improve their representation in models. However, commercially available cloud radars (35 and 95 GHz) are still very expensive, which hinders their widespread deployment. This study presents the development of a lower-cost semioperational 95-GHz Doppler cloud radar called the Bistatic Radar System for Atmospheric Studies (BASTA). To drastically reduce the cost of the instrument, a different approach is used compared to traditional pulsed radars: instead of transmitting a large amount of energy for a very short time period (as a pulse), a lower amount of energy is transmitted continuously. By using a specific signal processing technique, the radar can challenge expensive radars and provide high-quality measurements of cloud and fog. The latest version of the instrument has a sensitivity of about −50 dBZ at 1 km for 3-s integration and a vertical resolution of 25 m. The BASTA radar currently uses four successive modes for specific applications: the 12.5-m vertical resolution mode is dedicated to fog and low clouds, the 25-m mode is for liquid and ice midtropospheric clouds, and the 100- and 200-m modes are ideal for optically thin high-level ice clouds. The advantages of such a radar for calibration procedures and field operations are also highlighted. The radar comes with a set of products dedicated to cloud and fog studies. For instance, cloud mask, corrected Doppler velocity, and multimode products combining the high-sensitivity mode and high-resolution modes are provided.

Full access