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Munehisa K. Yamamoto, Fumie A. Furuzawa, Atsushi Higuchi, and Kenji Nakamura


Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data during June–August 1998–2003 are used to investigate diurnal variations of rain and cloud systems over the tropics and midlatitudes. The peak time of the coldest minimum brightness temperature derived from the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) and the maximum rain rate derived from the Precipitation Radar (PR) and the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) are compared. Time distributions are generally consistent with previous studies. However, it is found that systematic shifts in peak time relative to each sensor appeared over land, notably over western North America, the Tibetan Plateau, and oceanic regions such as the Gulf of Mexico. The peak time shift among PR, TMI, and VIRS is a few hours.

The relationships among the amplitude of diurnal variation, convective frequency, storm height, and rain amount are further investigated and compared to the systematic peak time shifts. The regions where the systematic shift appears correspond to large amplitude of diurnal variation, high convective frequency, and high storm height. Over land and over ocean near the coast, the relationships are rather clear, but not over open ocean.

The sensors likely detect different stages in the evolution of convective precipitation, which would explain the time shift. The PR directly detects near-surface rain. The TMI observes deep convection and solid hydrometeors, sensing heavy rain during the mature stage. VIRS detects deep convective clouds in mature and decaying stages. The shift in peak time particularly between PR (TMI) and VIRS varies by region.

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M. A. Jenkins, W. C. Wong, K. Higuchi, and J. L. Knox


This paper examines the 27-yr record of precipitation measurements at Ocean Weather Station “P” (50°N, 145°W). The credibility of the rainfall observations is assessed, and the testing of certain extraordinary features of the fall and winter seasonal precipitation time series is outlined. Using the portion of the record established to be close to “ground truth” (1954–1967), the authors have statistically related present weather observations to seasonal precipitation amounts at Ocean Weather Station “P.” With this approach, the authors have reproduced the first half (1954–1967) and predicted the second half (1969–1980) of the precipitation time series to compare to observations. Precipitation is physically estimated by determining the vertical moisture convergence at Ocean Weather Station “P” and comparing the relative consistency of the moisture convergence time series to the contemporaneous seasonal rate of measured precipitation. The analysis suggests that the Ocean Weather Station “P” record of measured precipitation is a substantial improvement over previous estimates of precipitation in the northeast Pacific for the period between 1954 and 1967, but that the second half of the record, particularly during the early 1970s, remains questionable. Reliable rainfall estimates along with measurements for the 27-yr record are given to aid studies dealing with energy balance calculations and the verification of oceanic precipitation generated by global climate models.

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