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M. Reuter
,
W. Thomas
,
P. Albert
,
M. Lockhoff
,
R. Weber
,
K-G. Karlsson
, and
J. Fischer

Abstract

The Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM-SAF) is aiming to retrieve satellite-derived geophysical parameters suitable for climate monitoring. CM-SAF started routine operations in early 2007 and provides a climatology of parameters describing the global energy and water cycle on a regional scale and partially on a global scale. Here, the authors focus on the performance of cloud detection methods applied to measurements of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on the first Meteosat Second Generation geostationary spacecraft. The retrieved cloud mask is the basis for calculating the cloud fractional coverage (CFC) but is also mandatory for retrieving other geophysical parameters. Therefore, the quality of the cloud detection directly influences climate monitoring of many other parameters derived from spaceborne sensors. CM-SAF products and results of an alternative cloud coverage retrieval provided by the Institut für Weltraumwissenschaften of the Freie Universität in Berlin, Germany (FUB), were validated against synoptic measurements. Furthermore, and on the basis of case studies, an initial comparison was performed of CM-SAF results with results derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and from the Cloud–Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). Results show that the CFC from CM-SAF and FUB agrees well with synoptic data and MODIS data over midlatitudes but is underestimated over the tropics and overestimated toward the edges of the visible Earth disk.

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H. Gregow
,
K. Jylhä
,
H. M. Mäkelä
,
J. Aalto
,
T. Manninen
,
P. Karlsson
,
A. K. Kaiser-Weiss
,
F. Kaspar
,
P. Poli
,
D. G. H. Tan
,
A. Obregon
, and
Z. Su

Abstract

A worldwide online survey about user awareness of reanalyses and climate services was conducted in the period from November 2013 to February 2014 by the Coordinating Earth Observation Data Validation for Re-Analysis for Climate Services (CORE-CLIMAX) project. The 2,578 respondents were mostly users of global reanalyses [particularly the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) reanalyses]. They answered queries arranged in 11 sections by choosing from preprepared check-box responses and left several hundred free comments. Here, we analyze responses related to characteristics of reanalysis data and the perceived obstacles for using reanalysis in climate services. After examining responses from all survey participants, we focus on the answers from subgroups working in specific disciplines related to natural resource management: freshwater, agriculture and food production, forestry, and energy. Although the survey attracted mostly self-selected respondents from the education and public research and development (R&D) sectors, one-third of the energy-related subgroup were from the private sector. A large majority (91%) of the respondents use ECMWF reanalyses, but other reanalysis products are also widely used by them. Respondents expressed desire for reanalysis development in the areas of 1) training and online plotting tools, 2) more frequent updates, 3) explanations about uncertainties (the energy subgroup emphasizes this), 4) smaller biases, 5) less restrictive data policy, and 6) higher temporal and spatial resolution (the energy and water subgroups highlight this). Additionally, the subgroups (excluding energy) expressed interest in including in future climate services activities for applied weather and climate research for impact assessment and/or statistical impact analyses for improving weather warnings and their criteria.

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E. Raschke
,
J. Meywerk
,
K. Warrach
,
U. Andrea
,
S. Bergström
,
F. Beyrich
,
F. Bosveld
,
K. Bumke
,
C. Fortelius
,
L. P. Graham
,
S.-E. Gryning
,
S. Halldin
,
L. Hasse
,
M. Heikinheimo
,
H.-J. Isemer
,
D. Jacob
,
I. Jauja
,
K.-G. Karlsson
,
S. Keevallik
,
J. Koistinen
,
A. van Lammeren
,
U. Lass
,
J. Launianen
,
A. Lehmann
,
B. Liljebladh
,
M. Lobmeyr
,
W. Matthäus
,
T. Mengelkamp
,
D. B. Michelson
,
J. Napiórkowski
,
A. Omstedt
,
J. Piechura
,
B. Rockel
,
F. Rubel
,
E. Ruprecht
,
A.-S. Smedman
, and
A. Stigebrandt

The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX) is one of the five continental-scale experiments of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX). More than 50 research groups from 14 European countries are participating in this project to measure and model the energy and water cycle over the large drainage basin of the Baltic Sea in northern Europe. BALTEX aims to provide a better understanding of the processes of the climate system and to improve and to validate the water cycle in regional numerical models for weather forecasting and climate studies. A major effort is undertaken to couple interactively the atmosphere with the vegetated continental surfaces and the Baltic Sea including its sea ice. The intensive observational and modeling phase BRIDGE, which is a contribution to the Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period of GEWEX, will provide enhanced datasets for the period October 1999–February 2002 to validate numerical models and satellite products. Major achievements have been obtained in an improved understanding of related exchange processes. For the first time an interactive atmosphere–ocean–land surface model for the Baltic Sea was tested. This paper reports on major activities and some results.

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