Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Kory J. Priestley x
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Kory J. Priestley
,
Susan Thomas
, and
G. Louis Smith

Abstract

The Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometers have been operating to make raster scans of the moon on a quarterly basis to validate the point response function for the three channels of flight models 1–4 aboard the Terra and Aqua spacecraft. Instrument pointing accuracy was verified by this method to 0.2° for the total channel of FM-3. The point response functions were computed from the lunar observations and were found to be nominal with the exception of the FM-2 window channel, which was found to have a region of high sensitivity. This anomaly is attributed to a delamination of the detector flake from the heat sink in that region. The influence of this anomaly is accounted for by the in-flight calibration and has no adverse effect on the application of the data.

Full access
G. Louis Smith
,
Kory J. Priestley
,
Phillip C. Hess
,
Chris Currey
, and
Peter Spence

Abstract

The Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument is a scanning radiometer for measuring Earth-emitted and -reflected solar radiation to understand Earth’s energy balance. One CERES instrument was placed into orbit aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) in 1997; two were aboard the Terra spacecraft, launched in 1999; and two were aboard the Aqua spacecraft, launched in 2002. These measurements are used together with data from higher-resolution instruments to generate a number of data products. The nominal footprint size of the pixel at Earth’s surface is 16 km in the cross-scan direction and 23 km in the scan direction for the TRMM platform and 36 km in the cross-scan direction and 46 km in the scan direction for the Terra and Aqua platforms. It is required that the location on Earth of each pixel be known to 1–2 km to use the CERES data with the higher-resolution instruments on a pixel basis. A technique has been developed to validate the computed geolocation of the measurements by use of coastlines. Scenes are chosen in which the reflected solar radiation changes abruptly from the land surface to the darker ocean surface and the Earth-emitted radiation changes from the warm land to the cool ocean, or vice versa, so that scenes can be detected both day and night. The computed coastline location is then compared with the World Bank II map. The method has been applied to data from the three spacecraft and shows that the pixel geolocations are accurate to within 10% of the pixel size and that the geolocation is adequate for current scientific investigations.

Full access
G. Louis Smith
,
D. K. Pandey
,
Robert B. Lee III
,
Bruce R. Barkstrom
, and
Kory J. Priestley

Abstract

The Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) scanning radiometer was designed to provide high accuracy measurements of the radiances from the earth. Calibration testing of the instruments showed the presence of an undesired slow transient in the measurements of all channels at 1% to 2% of the signal. Analysis of the data showed that the transient consists of a single linear mode. The characteristic time of this mode is 0.3 to 0.4 s and is much greater than that the 8–10-ms response time of the detector, so that it is well separated from the detector response. A numerical filter was designed for the removal of this transient from the measurements. Results show no trace remaining of the transient after application of the numerical filter. The characterization of the slow mode on the basis of ground calibration data is discussed and flight results are shown for the CERES instruments aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission and Terra spacecraft. The primary influence of the slow mode is in the calibration of the instrument and the in-flight validation of the calibration. This method may be applicable to other radiometers that are striving for high accuracy and encounter a slow spurious mode, regardless of the underlying physics.

Full access
Kory J. Priestley
,
G. Louis Smith
,
Susan Thomas
,
Denise Cooper
,
Robert B. Lee III
,
Dale Walikainen
,
Phillip Hess
,
Z. Peter Szewczyk
, and
Robert Wilson

Abstract

The Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) flight models 1 through 4 instruments were launched aboard NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua spacecraft into 705-km sun-synchronous orbits with 10:30 p.m. and 1:30 a.m. local time equatorial crossing times. With these instruments CERES provides state-of-the-art observations and products related to the earth’s radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The archived CERES science data products consist of geolocated and calibrated instantaneous filtered and unfiltered radiances through temporally and spatially averaged TOA, surface, and atmospheric fluxes. CERES-filtered radiance measurements cover three spectral bands: shortwave (0.3–5 μm), total (0.3>100 μm), and an atmospheric window channel (8–12 μm).

CERES climate data products realize a factor of 2–4 improvement in calibration accuracy and stability over the previotus Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) products. To achieve this improvement there are three editions of data products. Edition 1 generates data products using gain coefficients derived from ground calibrations. After a minimum of four months, the calibration data are examined to remove drifts in the calibration. The data are then reprocessed to produce the edition 2 data products. These products are available for science investigations for which an accuracy of 2% is sufficient. Also, a validation protocol is applied to these products to find problems and develop solutions, after which edition 3 data products will be computed, for which the objectives are calibration stability of better than 0.2% and calibration traceability from ground to flight of 0.25%. This paper reports the status of the radiometric accuracy and stability of the CERES edition 2 instrument data products through April 2007.

Full access