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Kyle S. Griffin
Jonathan E. Martin


Time-extended EOF (TE-EOF) analysis is employed to examine the synoptic-scale evolution of the two leading modes of the North Pacific jet stream variability, namely, its zonal extension–retraction (TE-EOF 1) and the north–south shift of its exit region (TE-EOF 2). Use of the TE-EOF analysis enables a temporally coherent examination of the synoptic-scale evolution preceding and following peaks in each of the two leading modes that provides insight into the preferred evolutions of the North Pacific jet.

Composite analyses are constructed based upon selecting peaks in the principal component time series of both phases of each TE-EOF whose magnitude exceeded 1.5 standard deviations. Jet extension events are associated with an anomalous cyclonic circulation over the Gulf of Alaska that induces a low-level warm anomaly over western North America. Jet retractions are associated with a nearly opposite configuration characterized by an anomalous anticyclonic circulation over the Aleutians and anomalous low-level cold anomaly over western North America. Similar but lower-amplitude upper-level patterns are noted in the composites of the corresponding poleward-/equatorward-shifted jet phases, with the poleward shift of the jet exit region tied to anomalously low geopotential heights over Alaska and anomalous low-level warmth over north-central North America. An equatorward shift of the exit region is tied to positive height anomalies over Alaska with downstream cold anomalies occurring in western North America. The more extreme downstream impacts that characterize TE-EOF 2 are also longer lasting (>5 days), suggesting potential utility in medium-range forecasts.

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