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  • Author or Editor: Lasse Makkonen x
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Lasse Makkonen

Abstract

An objective method is presented for the analysis of rotating multicylinder data in measuring the liquid water content and median volume droplet diameter of icing clouds. The method is based on time-dependent numerical modeling of cylinder icing and requires no data on diameters of the iced cylinders. Developing a fully automatic rotating multicylinder instrument is proposed.

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Lasse Makkonen

Abstract

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Lasse Makkonen, Pertti Lehtonen, and Lauri Helle

Abstract

The accuracy of wind measurements in icing conditions is discussed, and wind tunnel calibrations as well as field comparisons are presented for three heated anemometers that use different measuring principles. It is pointed out that ice-free anemometer calibrations, including those provided by manufacturers, are affected by the blockage effect in wind tunnels that are too small. Some anemometers that measure correctly in a wind tunnel give erroneous results in the field. Overall, measuring mean wind speeds and peak values in icing conditions with the accuracy of about 5% seems possible with the present technology, both with rotational and sonic anemometers, but in the most severe environments only some internally heated rotational anemometers are reliable. Wind measurements in icing conditions without due consideration of anemometer selection, specific instrument problems, calibration inaccuracies, mean vertical velocity component, and anti-icing of the supporting structures may result in very big errors.

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