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Leon Sherman

Abstract

By consideration of the buoyancy effects associated with the release of latent heat, an hypothesis concerning a mechanism for the formation of cloud lines is set up. Adequate data for a quantitative check of this hypothesis are not available; however, plausible synoptic examples are shown. In the course of the work, a method for computing the orientation of the axis of dilation of a wind field is developed.

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Leon Sherman

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Leon Sherman

Abstract

The difference in the wind speeds across hurricanes (from the “dangerous” to the opposite semi-circle) is often greater than twice the speed of propagation of the storm. The traditional explanation of the speed asymmetry of such storms must, then, be regarded as only a partial one. A speed asymmetry (in the same sense) must exist in the wind field as seen by an observer moving with the storm. Simple reasoning in terms of non-fluence lines (loci of points of parallel flow) applied to the simple model of a hurricane, consisting of a cyclonic indraft point plus its associated hyperbolic point, leads to the expected asymmetry in the relative field of flow.

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Leon Sherman

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Leon Sherman

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Leon Sherman

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Leon Sherman

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Leon Sherman

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Leon Sherman

Abstract

If the pressure is eliminated from the vorticity equation, this vector equation and the continuity equation constitute a system of four, independent scalar equations in the four dependent variables, consisting of the momentum components and the density. In this paper, these basic equations are used for study of those zonally propagated permanent-type flows which have small relative velocities. At first, relationships are deduced directly from the differential equations. Perhaps chief of these is a positive correlation in the lower layers of the atmosphere between the vertical and poleward momentum-components. Finally, the equations are integrated in terms of arbitrarily assignable fields, and a numerical example is presented.

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Leon Sherman

Abstract

It is desirable to treat the horizontal divergence as well as the vertical component of vorticity in reasoning about the wind field. One reason for this is that the vorticity is connected with the intensity of disturbances, the divergence with vertical motion and, hence, weather. Both are synoptically important. Another reason is that, together with boundary conditions and in the absence of discontinuities, these two fields are sufficient to determine the wind field. This co-importance makes desirable an equation for the horizontal divergence comparable to the scalar-vorticity equation. Such an equation is derived in the paper. The physical meanings and orders of magnitude of the various terms of the two equations are discussed. Certain terms of the vorticity equation, ordinarily neglected, are shown to be important.

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