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Hung-Chi Kuo
,
R. T. Williams
,
Jen-Her Chen
, and
Yi-Liang Chen

Abstract

The impact of the island topographic β effect on hurricane-like vortex tracks is studied. Both f plane and spherical geometry without a mean flow are considered. The simulations used in this study indicate the existence of a track mode in which vortices are trapped by the topography and follow a clockwise island-circulating path. The trapping of a hurricane-like vortex can be interpreted in terms of the influence of the island topographic β effect on the vortex track. Experiments on the f plane indicate that the drift speed along the clockwise path is proportional to the square root of β e v max. The applicability of the square root law on the f plane is dependent on the degree to which the local β e effect is felt by the vortex. The experiments on the sphere also demonstrate that the speed along the clockwise path is larger for a vortex with a larger maximum wind v max. The occurrence of hurricane-like vortex trapping, however, is not sensitive to the value of v max. When there is no background flow, the vortex will drift to the northwest in the presence of the planetary vorticity gradient. The β drift speed acts to keep the vortex from being trapped. The insensitivity of the vortex trapping to v max on the sphere appears to be due to the possible cancellation of stronger planetary β and topographic β effects. The experiments suggest that the topographic scale must be comparable to (if not larger than) the vortex radius of maximum wind for the trapping to occur. Nonlinear effects are important in that they hold the vortex together and keep it moving without strong dispersion in the island-circulating path. This vortex coherency can be explained with the β Rossby number dynamics. The global shallow-water model calculations used in this study indicate that the vortex trapping increases with peak height, topographic length scale, and latitude (larger topographic β effect). In general, the trapping and clockwise circulating path in the presence of a planetary vorticity gradient will occur if the scale of the topography is greater than the vortex radius of maximum wind and if the planetary β parameter is less than the topographic β parameter.

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Miming Zhang
,
Liqi Chen
,
Guojie Xu
,
Qi Lin
, and
Minyi Liang

Abstract

Multiple year-round aerosol samplings were conducted from February 2005 to October 2008 at Zhongshan Station, a research base in East Antarctica, to study methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and non-sea-salt sulfate (nss-SO4 2−). The concentrations of atmospheric sulfur species exhibited a seasonal cycle; the maximum and minimum concentrations occurred in austral summer and austral winter, respectively. Significant correlations between chlorophyll a (Chl a) in offshore polynyas and both MSA (r = 0.726, n = 52, and p < 0.01) and nss-SO4 2− (r = 0.724, n = 48, and p < 0.01) were found, indicating that the phytoplankton activity had a crucial effect on the sulfur aerosols. The sea ice dynamics in the polynyas and the variations in the polynya area may indirectly influence the sulfur aerosols in austral spring and summer. In austral winter, the sulfur compounds in the atmosphere are primarily originating in long-range transported by-products from remote regions because nearly no phytoplankton activity occurred in the offshore polynyas.

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Xun Jiang
,
Jingqian Wang
,
Edward T. Olsen
,
Maochang Liang
,
Thomas S. Pagano
,
Luke L. Chen
,
Stephen J. Licata
, and
Yuk L. Yung

Abstract

The authors investigate the influence of El Niño on midtropospheric CO2 from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 2 (MOZART-2). AIRS midtropospheric CO2 data are used to study the temporal and spatial variability of CO2 in response to El Niño. CO2 differences between the central and western Pacific Ocean correlate well with the Southern Oscillation index. To reveal the temporal and spatial variability of the El Niño signal in the AIRS midtropospheric CO2, a multiple regression method is applied to the CO2 data from September 2002 to February 2011. There is more (less) midtropospheric CO2 in the central Pacific and less (more) midtropospheric CO2 in the western Pacific during El Niño (La Niña) events. Similar results are seen in the MOZART-2 convolved midtropospheric CO2, although the El Niño signal in the MOZART-2 is weaker than that in the AIRS data.

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Weiqing Qu
,
A. Henderson-Sellers
,
A. J. Pitman
,
T. H. Chen
,
F. Abramopoulos
,
A. Boone
,
S. Chang
,
F. Chen
,
Y. Dai
,
R. E. Dickinson
,
L. Dümenil
,
M. Ek
,
N. Gedney
,
Y. M. Gusev
,
J. Kim
,
R. Koster
,
E. A. Kowalczyk
,
J. Lean
,
D. Lettenmaier
,
X. Liang
,
J.-F. Mahfouf
,
H.-T. Mengelkamp
,
K. Mitchell
,
O. N. Nasonova
,
J. Noilhan
,
A. Robock
,
C. Rosenzweig
,
J. Schaake
,
C. A. Schlosser
,
J.-P. Schulz
,
A. B. Shmakin
,
D. L. Verseghy
,
P. Wetzel
,
E. F. Wood
,
Z.-L. Yang
, and
Q. Zeng

Abstract

In the PILPS Phase 2a experiment, 23 land-surface schemes were compared in an off-line control experiment using observed meteorological data from Cabauw, the Netherlands. Two simple sensitivity experiments were also undertaken in which the observed surface air temperature was artificially increased or decreased by 2 K while all other factors remained as observed. On the annual timescale, all schemes show similar responses to these perturbations in latent, sensible heat flux, and other key variables. For the 2-K increase in temperature, surface temperatures and latent heat fluxes all increase while net radiation, sensible heat fluxes, and soil moistures all decrease. The results are reversed for a 2-K temperature decrease. The changes in sensible heat fluxes and, especially, the changes in the latent heat fluxes are not linearly related to the change of temperature. Theoretically, the nonlinear relationship between air temperature and the latent heat flux is evident and due to the convex relationship between air temperature and saturation vapor pressure. A simple test shows that, the effect of the change of air temperature on the atmospheric stratification aside, this nonlinear relationship is shown in the form that the increase of the latent heat flux for a 2-K temperature increase is larger than its decrease for a 2-K temperature decrease. However, the results from the Cabauw sensitivity experiments show that the increase of the latent heat flux in the +2-K experiment is smaller than the decrease of the latent heat flux in the −2-K experiment (we refer to this as the asymmetry). The analysis in this paper shows that this inconsistency between the theoretical relationship and the Cabauw sensitivity experiments results (or the asymmetry) is due to (i) the involvement of the β g formulation, which is a function of a series stress factors that limited the evaporation and whose values change in the ±2-K experiments, leading to strong modifications of the latent heat flux; (ii) the change of the drag coefficient induced by the changes in stratification due to the imposed air temperature changes (±2 K) in parameterizations of latent heat flux common in current land-surface schemes. Among all stress factors involved in the β g formulation, the soil moisture stress in the +2-K experiment induced by the increased evaporation is the main factor that contributes to the asymmetry.

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