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  • Author or Editor: MARIANO A. ESTOQUE x
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Mariano A. Estoque

Abstract

A method for estimating environmental temperature and moisture increases due to penetrative convection is discussed. The estimates depend on the upward flux across the earth surface, the large-scale horizontal convergence, and the variation of entrainment of outside air by the convective element with height. The effect of thermals originating at the surface layer as well as those at upper levels are incorporated. The method could be generalized to include the exchange of other atmospheric properties such as momentum and atmospheric pollutants. An application of the method to determine the heating of the environment by dry convection is described.

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Mariano A. Estoque

Abstract

An attempt to incorporate the effect of sloping terrain in a two-level model is presented. The resulting prediction equations may be integrated by graphical techniques. To derive the equations, it is necessary to prescribe an analytic expression for the vertical velocity profile. An actual forecast made with use of the model indicates that considerable improvement may be obtained over forecasts based on models which do not take into account orographic effects.

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George S. Benton
and
Mariano A. Estoque

Abstract

The transfer of water in vapor form by the atmosphere is presented for the calendar year 1949. Monthly and seasonal patterns of moisture flow are evaluated, and it is shown that there is a close relationship between these patterns and the distribution of precipitation. The importance of eddy systems in effecting moisture transfer is examined, and the meridional flow of vapor over the North American sector is compared with the average for the Northern Hemisphere. Divergence fields of water-vapor transfer are used in conjunction with a mass-continuity equation for water to compute evapotranspiration over the North American continent. Hydrologic data verify these computations to a remarkable degree.

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