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Mariano A. Estoque

Abstract

The three-dimensional structure and behavior of a lake-land breeze circulation system induced by Lake Ontario for a selected 24 h period is presented. The structure is determined from observations made during the International Field Year of the Great Lakes. The case which has been studied occurred when the large-scale prevailing flow was blowing from the south at relatively low speeds. The study shows that the lake induces a broad belt of easterlies over the take in the afternoon and the early evening. It also indicates that the lake breeze is more likely to occur over the southwestern coastal regions than over the southeastern coastal regions. During the early morning hours, surface wind convergence occurs over the northeastern shoreline but not over the northwestern shoreline.

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MARIANO A. ESTOQUE

Abstract

Wind observations in the planetary boundary layer over an atoll near the Equator were made using the double-theodolite pilot balloon method. The observed mean wind profile is representative of boundary layer flow over a homogeneous surface with a very low value of the Coriolis parameter. The wind is predominantly easterly with a small backing with height. Analysis of the wind profile suggests that the component of motion along east-west direction is approximately geostrophic; however, the component along the north-south direction is highly nongeostrophic. The analysis also indicates that the change in the wind direction with height is controlled mainly by the height variation of the horizontal pressure gradient.

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Mariano A. Estoque
and
James M. Gross

Abstract

The three-dimensional structure and behavior of the lake-land breeze circulation which is induced by Lake Ontario is studied by means of a numerical model. The model is a primitive equation model which incorporates the effects of orography and the temperature prediction of the earth surface. A series of integrations is made in order to examine the effects of the large-scale prevailing flow and orography. These effects, which are found to be important in determining the structure of the lake-induced mesoscale flow pattern, are described in detail. One of the integrations corresponds to a simulation of an actually observed lake-land breeze circulation. Comparison between the simulated and the observed structures shows good agreement.

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