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Harry H. Hendon
,
Kenneth R. Sperber
,
Duane E. Waliser
, and
Matthew C. Wheeler

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Sally L. Lavender
,
Tim Cowan
,
Matthew Hawcroft
,
Matthew C. Wheeler
,
Chelsea Jarvis
,
David Cobon
,
Hanh Nguyen
,
Debra Hudson
,
S. Sharmila
,
Andrew G. Marshall
,
Catherine de Burgh-Day
,
Sean Milton
,
Alison Stirling
,
Oscar Alves
, and
Harry H. Hendon

Abstract

Since 2017, the Northern Australia Climate Program (NACP) has assisted the pastoral grazing industry to better manage drought risk and climate variability. The NACP funding is sourced from the beef cattle industry, government, and academia, representing the program’s broad range of aims and target beneficiaries. The program funds scientists in the United Kingdom and Australia, in addition to extension advisers called “Climate Mates” across a region that supports 15 million head of cattle. Many Climate Mates are employed in the cattle sector and have existing relationships in their communities and capacity to meaningfully engage with the program’s intended beneficiaries—red meat producers. The NACP is a prime example of a successful end-to-end program, integrating climate model improvements (research) with tailored forecast products (development), through to direct stakeholder engagement (extension), on-ground application of technologies (adoption), and improvement in industry and community resilience (impact). The climate information needs of stakeholders also feed back to the research and development components, ensuring the scientific research directly addresses end-user requirements. For any scientific research program, ensuring that research output has measurable real-world impact represents a key challenge. This is more difficult in cases where the scientific research is several steps away from the customer’s needs. This paper gives an overview of the NACP and research highlights, discussing how the end-to-end framework could be adapted and applied in other regions and industries. It seeks to provide a roadmap for other groups to follow to produce more targeted research with identifiable real-world benefits.

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Taneil Uttal
,
Judith A. Curry
,
Miles G. McPhee
,
Donald K. Perovich
,
Richard E. Moritz
,
James A. Maslanik
,
Peter S. Guest
,
Harry L. Stern
,
James A. Moore
,
Rene Turenne
,
Andreas Heiberg
,
Mark. C. Serreze
,
Donald P. Wylie
,
Ola G. Persson
,
Clayton A. Paulson
,
Christopher Halle
,
James H. Morison
,
Patricia A. Wheeler
,
Alexander Makshtas
,
Harold Welch
,
Matthew D. Shupe
,
Janet M. Intrieri
,
Knut Stamnes
,
Ronald W. Lindsey
,
Robert Pinkel
,
W. Scott Pegau
,
Timothy P. Stanton
, and
Thomas C. Grenfeld

A summary is presented of the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) project, with a focus on the field experiment that was conducted from October 1997 to October 1998. The primary objective of the field work was to collect ocean, ice, and atmospheric datasets over a full annual cycle that could be used to understand the processes controlling surface heat exchanges—in particular, the ice–albedo feedback and cloud–radiation feedback. This information is being used to improve formulations of arctic ice–ocean–atmosphere processes in climate models and thereby improve simulations of present and future arctic climate. The experiment was deployed from an ice breaker that was frozen into the ice pack and allowed to drift for the duration of the experiment. This research platform allowed the use of an extensive suite of instruments that directly measured ocean, atmosphere, and ice properties from both the ship and the ice pack in the immediate vicinity of the ship. This summary describes the project goals, experimental design, instrumentation, and the resulting datasets. Examples of various data products available from the SHEBA project are presented.

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