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  • Author or Editor: Max Yaremchuk x
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Gleb Panteleev
,
Max Yaremchuk
, and
Oceana Francis

Abstract

We analyzed the feasibility of the reconstruction of the spatially varying rheological parameters through the four-dimensional variational data assimilation of the sea ice velocity, thickness, and concentration into the viscoplastic (VP) sea ice model. The feasibility is assessed via idealized variational data assimilation experiments with synthetic observations configured for a 1-day data assimilation window in a 50 × 40 rectangular basin forced by the open boundaries, winds, and ocean currents and should be viewed as a first step in the developing the similar algorithms which can be applied for the more advanced sea ice models. It is found that “true” spatial variability (∼5.8 kN m−2) of the internal maximum ice strength parameter P * can be retrieved from observations with reasonable accuracy of 2.3–5.3 kN m−2, when an observation of the sea ice state is available daily in each grid point. Similar relative accuracy was achieved for the reconstruction of the compactness strength parameter α. The yield curve eccentricity e is found to be controlled by the data with less efficiency, but the spatial mean value of e could be still reconstructed with a similar degree of confidence. The accuracy of P * , α, and e retrievals is found to increase in regions of stronger ice velocity convergence, providing prospects for better processing of the observations collected during the recent MOSAiC experiment. The accuracy of the retrievals strongly depends on the number of the control variables characterizing the rheological parameter fields.

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Max I. Yaremchuk
and
Dmitri A. Nechaev

Abstract

Acoustic tomography (AT) and satellite altimetry (SA) measure properties of the ocean state with high temporal resolution. That makes these data suitable for long-term monitoring of mesoscale features in the open ocean regions, where the open boundaries are the major sources of model forecast uncertainties on timescales larger than 1 week. In this paper, a finite-difference quasigeostrophic model of an open ocean region is considered as a possible tool for interpolating AT–SA data in space and time. The assimilation algorithm is based upon the 4D variational data assimilation scheme controlled by the initial and boundary conditions of the model. The model configuration used in the simulations corresponds to the AT array deployed by the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC) in the region of the Kuroshio Extension in 1997. Twin data experiments show that mesoscale features in an area of 1000 km × 1000 km can be effectively monitored by five acoustic transceivers, measuring reciprocal travel times. The quality of assimilation is studied as a function of the position of the transceivers in the vertical and the effective number of monitored rays. It is shown that reciprocal travel time observations (differential tomography) in combination with SA provide a significant improvement of the quality of assimilation.

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Gleb Panteleev
,
Max Yaremchuk
, and
W. Erick Rogers

Abstract

A variational data assimilation algorithm is developed for the ocean wave prediction model [Wave Model (WAM)]. The algorithm employs the adjoint-free technique and was tested in a series of data assimilation experiments with synthetic observations in the Chukchi Sea region from various platforms. The types of considered observations are directional spectra estimated from point measurements by stationary buoys, significant wave height (SWH) observations by coastal high-frequency radars (HFRs) within a geographic sector, and SWH from satellite altimeter along a geographic track. Numerical experiments demonstrate computational feasibility and robustness of the adjoint-free variational algorithm with the regional configuration of WAM. The largest improvement of the model forecast skill is provided by assimilating HFR data (the most numerous among the considered types). Assimilating observations of the wave spectrum from a moored platform provides only moderate improvement of the skill, which disappears after 3 h of running WAM in the forecast mode, whereas skill improvement provided by HFRs is shown to persist up to 9 h. Space-borne observations, being the least numerous, do not have a significant impact on the forecast skill but appear to have a noticeable effect when assimilated in combination with other types of data. In particular, when spectral data from a single mooring are used, the satellite data are found to be the most beneficial as a supplemental data type, suggesting the importance of spatial coverage of the domain by observations.

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Alexei Sentchev
,
Max Yaremchuk
,
Denis Bourras
,
Ivane Pairaud
, and
Philippe Fraunié

Abstract

A method of assessing the mean eddy viscosity profile (EVP) in the sea surface boundary layer (SBL) under variable wind conditions is proposed. Performance of the method is tested using observations by an ADCP-equipped platform in the coastal environment of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea under variable (3–12 m s−1) wind conditions. EVP retrievals are made by a variational method strongly constrained by the Ekman dynamics, with the wind and velocity observations assumed to be uncertain within the prescribed error bars. Results demonstrate a reasonable agreement of the EVPs with KPP shape functions for stronger (8–12 m s−1) wind conditions and appear to be consistent with the classical Pacanowski–Philander parameterization of the viscosity profile based on the Richardson number. For weaker (3–5 m s−1) winds, the EVP retrievals turn out to be less accurate, which is primarily attributed to the decay of the wind-driven turbulence energy in the SBL. Feasibility and prospects of the retrieval technique are discussed in the context of uncertainties in the structure of the background flow and limitations of the microstructure and ADCP profiling.

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J. N. Stroh
,
Gleb Panteleev
,
Max Yaremchuk
,
Oceana Francis
, and
Richard Allard

Abstract

Sea ice models that allow for deformation are primarily based on rheological formulations originally developed in the 1970s. In both the original viscoplastic (VP) and elastic-VP schemes, the internal pressure term is modeled as a function of variable sea ice thickness and concentration with spatially and temporally constant empirical parameters for ice strength. This work considers a spatially variable extension of the rheology parameters as well as wind stress in a one-dimensional VP sea ice data assimilation system. In regions of total ice cover, experiments that assimilate synthetic ice-state observations using variable rheological parameters show larger improvements than equivalent experiments using homogeneous parameters. For partially ice-covered regions where internal ice stresses are relatively unimportant, experiments assimilating synthetic sea ice velocity observations demonstrate reasonable reconstruction of spatially variable wind stresses. These results suggest practical benefits for sea ice–state reconstruction and forecasts by using sea ice velocity, thickness, and concentration observations to optimize spatially varying rheological parameters and to improve wind stress forcing.

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Gleb Panteleev
,
Max Yaremchuk
,
Jacob Stroh
,
Pamela Posey
,
David Hebert
, and
Dmitri A. Nechaev

Abstract

Monitoring surface currents by coastal high-frequency radars (HFRs) is a cost-effective observational technique with good prospects for further development. An important issue in improving the efficiency of HFR systems is the optimization of radar positions on the coastline. Besides being constrained by environmental and logistic factors, such optimization has to account for prior knowledge of local circulation and the target quantities (such as transports through certain key sections) with respect to which the radar positions are to be optimized.

In the proposed methodology, prior information of the regional circulation is specified by the solution of the 4D variational assimilation problem, where the available climatological data in the Bering Strait (BS) region are synthesized with dynamical constraints of a numerical model. The optimal HFR placement problem is solved by maximizing the reduction of a posteriori error in the mass, heat, and salt (MHS) transports through the target sections in the region. It is shown that the MHS transports into the Arctic and their redistribution within the Chukchi Sea are best monitored by placing HFRs at Cape Prince of Wales and on Little Diomede Island. Another equally efficient configuration involves placement of the second radar at Sinuk (western Alaska) in place of Diomede. Computations show that 1) optimization of the HFR deployment yields a significant (1.3–3 times) reduction of the transport errors compared to nonoptimal positioning of the radars and 2) error reduction provided by two HFRs is an order of magnitude better than the one obtained from three moorings permanently maintained in the region for the last 5 yr. This result shows a significant advantage of BS monitoring by HFRs compared to the more traditional technique of in situ moored observations. The obtained results are validated by an extensive set of observing system simulation experiments.

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