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  • Author or Editor: Min Chen x
  • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology x
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Tzu-Han Hsu
,
Wei-Ting Chen
,
Chien-Ming Wu
, and
Min-Ken Hsieh

Abstract

This study quantifies the potential effect of the lee vortex on the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution deterioration under the complex topography in Taiwan using observational data. We select the lee-vortex days that favor the development of the lee vortices in northwestern Taiwan under the southeasterly synoptic winds. We then define the enhancement index that discerns the areas with the high occurrence frequencies of the PM2.5 enhancement under the flow regime relative to the seasonal background concentrations. Under the lee-vortex days, the center of western Taiwan exhibits enhancement indices higher than 0.65. In addition, during the consecutive lee-vortex days, the index characterizes a northward shift in the PM2.5-enhanced areas under the subtle transition of the background wind directions. The areas with indices higher than 0.65 expand on the second day in northwestern Taiwan; the number of stations exhibiting indices higher than 0.8 increases by threefold from the first to the second day. The idealized numerical simulations using the Taiwan vector vorticity equation cloud-resolving model (TaiwanVVM) explicitly resolve the structures of leeside circulations and the associated pollutant transport, and their evolutions are highly sensitive to the background winds.

Significance Statement

Our study investigates the challenging question of local circulation patterns affected by mountain orography and the associated pollutant transport. We analyzed long-term balloon sounding and ground station observations to select the weather regime favoring the formation of lee vortices on Taiwan island. We then quantified the areas with a frequent enhancement of particulate pollutants. The long-term trend of the lee-vortex days exhibited a significant increase in the past decades. The pollution enhancement areas are highly consistent with the regions dominated by leeside local circulation. Together with the idealized high-resolution simulations, we identified that the detailed evolution of the lee vortices is highly sensitive to the subtle changes in background wind direction and hence the redistribution of local pollution.

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Yaodeng Chen
,
Hongli Wang
,
Jinzhong Min
,
Xiang-Yu Huang
,
Patrick Minnis
,
Ruizhi Zhang
,
Julie Haggerty
, and
Rabindra Palikonda

Abstract

Analysis of the cloud components in numerical weather prediction models using advanced data assimilation techniques has been a prime topic in recent years. In this research, the variational data assimilation (DA) system for the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model (WRFDA) is further developed to assimilate satellite cloud products that will produce the cloud liquid water and ice water analysis. Observation operators for the cloud liquid water path and cloud ice water path are developed and incorporated into the WRFDA system. The updated system is tested by assimilating cloud liquid water path and cloud ice water path observations from Global Geostationary Gridded Cloud Products at NASA. To assess the impact of cloud liquid/ice water path data assimilation on short-term regional numerical weather prediction (NWP), 3-hourly cycling data assimilation and forecast experiments with and without the use of the cloud liquid/ice water paths are conducted. It is shown that assimilating cloud liquid/ice water paths increases the accuracy of temperature, humidity, and wind analyses at model levels between 300 and 150 hPa after 5 cycles (15 h). It is also shown that assimilating cloud liquid/ice water paths significantly reduces forecast errors in temperature and wind at model levels between 300 and 150 hPa. The precipitation forecast skills are improved as well. One reason that leads to the improved analysis and forecast is that the 3-hourly rapid update cycle carries over the impact of cloud information from the previous cycles spun up by the WRF Model.

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