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  • Author or Editor: Ming Pan x
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Ming Pan
and
Eric F. Wood

Abstract

A procedure is developed to incorporate equality constraints in Kalman filters, including the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), and is referred to as the constrained ensemble Kalman filter (CEnKF). The constraint is carried out as a two-step filtering approach, with the first step being the standard (ensemble) Kalman filter. The second step is the constraint step carried out by another Kalman filter that optimally redistributes any imbalance from the first step. The CEnKF is implemented over a 75 000 km2 domain in the southern Great Plains region of the United States, using the terrestrial water balance as the constraint. The observations, consisting of gridded fields of the upper two soil moisture layers from the Oklahoma Mesonet system, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Cloud and Radiation Testbed (ARM-CART) energy balance Bowen ratio (EBBR) latent heat estimates, and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow from unregulated basins, are assimilated into the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model. The water balance was applied at the domain scale, and estimates of the water balance components for the domain are updated from the data assimilation step so as to assure closure.

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Ming Pan
and
Eric F. Wood

Abstract

Part I of this series of studies developed procedures to implement the multiscale filtering algorithm for land surface hydrology and performed assimilation experiments with rainfall ensembles from a climate model. However, a most important application of the multiscale technique is to assimilate satellite-based remote sensing observations into a land surface model—and this has not been realized. This paper focuses on enabling the multiscale assimilation system to use remotely sensed precipitation data. The major challenge is the generation of a rainfall ensemble given one satellite rainfall map. An acceptable rainfall ensemble must contain a proper multiscale spatial correlation structure, and each ensemble member presents a realistic rainfall process in both space and time. A pattern-based sampling approach is proposed, in which random samples are drawn from a historical rainfall database according to the pattern of the satellite rainfall and then a cumulative distribution function matching procedure is applied to ensure the proper statistics for the pixel-level rainfall intensity. The assimilation system is applied using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission real-time satellite rainfall over the Red–Arkansas River basin. Results show that the ensembles so generated satisfy the requirements for spatial correlation and realism and the multiscale assimilation works reasonably well. A number of limitations also exist in applying this generation method, mainly stemming from the high dimensionality of the problem and the lack of historical records.

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Di Tian
,
Ming Pan
, and
Eric F. Wood

Abstract

Land surface water and energy fluxes from the ensemble mean of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) simulations of a Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) high-resolution climate model (AM2.5) were evaluated using offline simulations of a calibrated land surface model [Princeton Global Forcing (PGF)/VIC] and intercompared with three reanalysis datasets: MERRA-Land, ERA-Interim/Land, and CFSR. Using PGF/VIC as the reference, the AM2.5 precipitation, evapotranspiration, and runoff showed a global positive bias of ~0.44, ~0.27, and ~0.15 mm day−1, respectively. For the energy budget, while the AM2.5 net radiation agreed very well with the PGF/VIC, the AM2.5 improperly partitioned the net radiation, with the latent heat showing positive bias and sensible heat showing negative bias. The AM2.5 net radiation, latent heat, and sensible heat relative to the PGF/VIC had a global negative bias of ~1.42 W m−2, positive bias of ~7.8 W m−2, and negative bias of ~8.7 W m−2, respectively. The three reanalyses show greater biases in net radiation, likely due to the deficiencies in cloud parameterizations. At a regional scale, the biases of the AM2.5 water and energy budget components are mostly comparable to the three reanalyses and PGF/VIC. While the AM2.5 well simulated the actual values of water and energy fluxes, the temporal anomaly correlations of the three reanalyses with PGF/VIC were mostly greater than the AM2.5, partly due to the ensemble mean of the AM2.5 members averaging out the intrinsic variability of the land surface fluxes. The discrepancies among land surface model simulations, reanalyses, and high-resolution climate model simulations demonstrate the challenges in estimating and evaluating land surface hydrologic fluxes at regional-to-global scales.

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Lu Su
,
Qian Cao
,
Shraddhanand Shukla
,
Ming Pan
, and
Dennis P. Lettenmaier

Abstract

Predictions of drought onset and termination at subseasonal (from 2 weeks to 1 month) lead times could provide a foundation for more effective and proactive drought management. We used reforecasts archived in NOAA’s Subseasonal Experiment (SubX) to force the Noah Multiparameterization (Noah-MP), which produced forecasts of soil moisture from which we identified drought levels D0–D4. We evaluated forecast skill of major and more modest droughts, with leads from 1 to 4 weeks, and with particular attention to drought termination and onset. We find usable drought termination and onset forecast skill at leads 1 and 2 weeks for major D0–D2 droughts and limited skill at week 3 for major D0–D1 droughts, with essentially no skill at week 4 regardless of drought severity. Furthermore, for both major and more modest droughts, we find limited skill or no skill for D3–D4 droughts. We find that skill is generally higher for drought termination than for onset for all drought events. We also find that drought prediction skill generally decreases from north to south for all drought events.

Free access
Xue-Jun Zhang
,
Qiuhong Tang
,
Ming Pan
, and
Yin Tang

Abstract

A long-term consistent and comprehensive dataset of land surface hydrologic fluxes and states will greatly benefit the analysis of land surface variables, their changes and interactions, and the assessment of land–atmosphere parameterizations for climate models. While some offline model studies can provide balanced water and energy budgets at land surface, few of them have presented an evaluation of the long-term interaction of water balance components over China. Here, a consistent and comprehensive land surface hydrologic fluxes and states dataset for China using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model driven by long-term gridded observation-based meteorological forcings is developed. The hydrologic dataset covers China with a 0.25° spatial resolution and a 3-hourly time step for 1952–2012. In the dataset, the simulated streamflow matches well with the observed monthly streamflow at the large river basins in China. Given the water balance scheme in the VIC model, the overall success at runoff simulations suggests that the long-term mean evapotranspiration is also realistically estimated. The simulated soil moisture generally reproduces the seasonal variation of the observed soil moisture at the ground stations where long-term observations are available. The modeled snow cover patterns and monthly dynamics bear an overall resemblance to the Northern Hemisphere snow cover extent data from the National Snow and Ice Data Center. Compared with global product of a similar nature, the dataset can provide a more reliable estimate of land surface variables over China. The dataset, which will be publicly available via the Internet, may be useful for hydroclimatological studies in China.

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Ming Pan
,
Eric F. Wood
,
Dennis B. McLaughlin
,
Dara Entekhabi
, and
Lifeng Luo

Abstract

The multiscale autoregressive (MAR) framework was introduced in the last decade to process signals that exhibit multiscale features. It provides the method for identifying the multiscale structure in signals and a filtering procedure, and thus is an efficient way to solve the optimal estimation problem for many high-dimensional dynamic systems. Later, an ensemble version of this multiscale filtering procedure, the ensemble multiscale filter (EnMSF), was developed for estimation systems that rely on Monte Carlo samples, making this technique suitable for a range of applications in geosciences. Following the prototype study that introduced EnMSF, a strategy is devised here to implement the multiscale method in a hydrologic data assimilation system, which runs a land surface model. Assimilation experiments are carried out over the Arkansas–Red River basin, located in the central United States (∼645 000 km2), using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model with a computing grid of 1062 pixels. A synthetic data assimilation experiment is performed, driven by meteorological forcing fields downscaled from the ensemble forecasts made by the NOAA/National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System (CFS). The classic full-rank ensemble Kalman filter is used as the benchmark to evaluate the multiscale filter performance, and comparisons are also made with a horizontally uncoupled filter. It is demonstrated that the multiscale filter is able to closely approximate the full-rank solution with a low computational cost (∼1/20 of the full-rank filter) in an experiment in which the top-layer soil moisture is assimilated, whereas the horizontally uncoupled filter fails to approximate the full-rank solution.

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Niko Wanders
,
Stephan Thober
,
Rohini Kumar
,
Ming Pan
,
Justin Sheffield
,
Luis Samaniego
, and
Eric F. Wood

Abstract

Hydrological forecasts with a high temporal and spatial resolution are required to provide the level of information needed by end users. So far high-resolution multimodel seasonal hydrological forecasts have been unavailable due to 1) lack of availability of high-resolution meteorological seasonal forecasts, requiring temporal and spatial downscaling; 2) a mismatch between the provided seasonal forecast information and the user needs; and 3) lack of consistency between the hydrological model outputs to generate multimodel seasonal hydrological forecasts. As part of the End-to-End Demonstrator for Improved Decision Making in the Water Sector in Europe (EDgE) project commissioned by the Copernicus Climate Change Service (ECMWF), this study provides a unique dataset of seasonal hydrological forecasts derived from four general circulation models [CanCM4, GFDL Forecast-Oriented Low Ocean Resolution version of CM2.5 (GFDL-FLOR), ECMWF Season Forecast System 4 (ECMWF-S4), and Météo-France LFPW] in combination with four hydrological models [mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM), Noah-MP, PCRaster Global Water Balance (PCR-GLOBWB), and VIC]. The forecasts are provided at daily resolution, 6-month lead time, and 5-km spatial resolution over the historical period from 1993 to 2012. Consistency in hydrological model parameterization ensures an increased consistency in the hydrological forecasts. Results show that skillful discharge forecasts can be made throughout Europe up to 3 months in advance, with predictability up to 6 months for northern Europe resulting from the improved predictability of the spring snowmelt. The new system provides an unprecedented ensemble of seasonal hydrological forecasts with significant skill over Europe to support water management. This study highlights the potential advantages of multimodel based forecasting system in providing skillful hydrological forecasts.

Open access
Shusen Wang
,
Ming Pan
,
Qiaozhen Mu
,
Xiaoying Shi
,
Jiafu Mao
,
Christian Brümmer
,
Rachhpal S. Jassal
,
Praveena Krishnan
,
Junhua Li
, and
T. Andrew Black

Abstract

This study compares six evapotranspiration ET products for Canada’s landmass, namely, eddy covariance EC measurements; surface water budget ET; remote sensing ET from MODIS; and land surface model (LSM) ET from the Community Land Model (CLM), the Ecological Assimilation of Land and Climate Observations (EALCO) model, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC). The ET climatology over the Canadian landmass is characterized and the advantages and limitations of the datasets are discussed. The EC measurements have limited spatial coverage, making it difficult for model validations at the national scale. Water budget ET has the largest uncertainty because of data quality issues with precipitation in mountainous regions and in the north. MODIS ET shows relatively large uncertainty in cold seasons and sparsely vegetated regions. The LSM products cover the entire landmass and exhibit small differences in ET among them. Annual ET from the LSMs ranges from small negative values to over 600 mm across the landmass, with a countrywide average of 256 ± 15 mm. Seasonally, the countrywide average monthly ET varies from a low of about 3 mm in four winter months (November–February) to 67 ± 7 mm in July. The ET uncertainty is scale dependent. Larger regions tend to have smaller uncertainties because of the offset of positive and negative biases within the region. More observation networks and better quality controls are critical to improving ET estimates. Future techniques should also consider a hybrid approach that integrates strengths of the various ET products to help reduce uncertainties in ET estimation.

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Youlong Xia
,
David M. Mocko
,
Shugong Wang
,
Ming Pan
,
Sujay V. Kumar
,
Christa D. Peters-Lidard
,
Helin Wei
,
Dagang Wang
, and
Michael B. Ek

Abstract

Since the second phase of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2) was operationally implemented at NOAA/NCEP as part of the production suite in August 2014, developing the next phase of NLDAS has been a key focus of the NCEP and NASA NLDAS teams. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model is one of the four land surface models of the NLDAS system. The current operational NLDAS-2 uses version 4.0.3 (VIC403), the research NLDAS-2 used version 4.0.5 (VIC405), and the NASA Land Information System (LIS)-based NLDAS uses version 4.1.2.l (VIC412). The purpose of this study is to evaluate VIC403 and VIC412 and check if the latter version has better performance for the next phase of NLDAS. Toward this, a comprehensive evaluation was conducted, targeting multiple variables and using multiple metrics to assess the performance of different model versions. The evaluation results show large and significant improvements in VIC412 over the southeastern United States when compared with VIC403 and VIC405. In other regions, there are very limited improvements or even deterioration to some degree. This is partially due to 1) the sparseness of USGS streamflow observations for model parameter calibration and 2) a deterioration of VIC model performance in the Great Plains (GP) region after a model upgrade to a newer version. Overall, the model upgrade enhances model performance and skill scores for most parts of the continental United States; exceptions include the GP and western mountainous regions, as well as the daily soil moisture simulation skill, suggesting that VIC model development is on the right path. Further efforts are needed for scientific understanding of land surface physical processes in the GP, and a recalibration of VIC412 using reasonable reference datasets is recommended.

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Xiaoli Yang
,
Xiaohan Yu
,
Yuqian Wang
,
Xiaogang He
,
Ming Pan
,
Mengru Zhang
,
Yi Liu
,
Liliang Ren
, and
Justin Sheffield

Abstract

A multimodel ensemble of general circulation models (GCM) is a popular approach to assess hydrological impacts of climate change at local, regional, and global scales. The traditional multimodel ensemble approach has not considered different uncertainties across GCMs, which can be evaluated from the comparisons of simulations against observations. This study developed a comprehensive index to generate an optimal ensemble for two main climate fields (precipitation and temperature) for the studies of hydrological impacts of climate change over China. The index is established on the skill score of each bias-corrected model and different multimodel combinations using the outputs from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Results show that the optimal ensemble of the nine selected models accurately captures the characteristics of spatial–temporal variabilities of precipitation and temperature over China. We discussed the uncertainty of subset ensembles of ranking models and optimal ensemble based on historical performance. We found that the optimal subset ensemble of nine models has relative smaller uncertainties compared with other subsets. Our proposed framework to postprocess the multimodel ensemble data has a wide range of applications for climate change assessment and impact studies.

Free access