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Dean Roemmich, John Gilson, Philip Sutton, and Nathalie Zilberman


Multidecadal trends in ocean heat and freshwater content are well documented, but much less evidence exists of long-term changes in ocean circulation. Previously, a 12-yr increase, 1993 to 2004, in the circulation of the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre interior was described. That analysis was based on differences between early Argo and 1990s hydrographic data and changes in sea surface height. Here, it is shown that the trend of increasing circulation continues through 2014, with some differences within the Argo decade (2005 to 2014). Patterns that indicate or are consistent with increasing equatorward transport in the eastern portion of the South Pacific Gyre are seen in Argo temperature and steric height, Argo trajectory velocity, altimetric sea surface height, sea surface temperature, sea level pressure, and wind stress. Between 2005 and 2014 the geostrophic circulation across 35°S, from 160°W to South America, was enhanced by 5 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) of added northward flow. This was countered by a southward transport anomaly between the date line and 160°W. Corresponding temperature trends span the full 2000-m depth range of Argo observations. The 22-yr trend, 1993 to 2014, in sea surface height at 35°S, 160°W is 8 cm decade−1. Trends in sea surface temperature over 34 yr, 1981 to 2014, show a similar spatial pattern to that of sea surface height, with an increase of 0.5°C decade−1 at 35°S, 160°W. These multidecadal trends support the interpretation of the 40°S maximum in global ocean heat gain as resulting from anomalous wind forcing and Ekman convergence.

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Tianyu Wang, Sarah T. Gille, Matthew R. Mazloff, Nathalie V. Zilberman, and Yan Du


Argo float trajectories are simulated in the southwest Pacific basin (25°–45°S, 170°E–165°W) using velocity fields from a 1/12° Southern Ocean model and a Lagrangian particle tracking model programmed to represent the vertical motions of profiling Argo floats. The system is applied to simulate both core Argo floats (typically parked at 1000-m depth and profiling to 2000-m depth) and Deep Argo floats (parked 500 m above the seafloor). The goal is to estimate probability density functions (PDFs) predicting future float positions. Differences are expected in the trajectory statistics, largely because of limitations in the temporal and spatial resolution of the model fields and uncertainties associated with a random walk component included in the particle advection scheme to represent this unresolved variability. Nonetheless, the core Argo float displacements over ~100-day time intervals are mostly consistent with the derived PDFs, particularly in regions with stable midlayer flows. For the Deep Argo floats, which are released into the open ocean and parked near the bottom, the simulations predict an average total displacement of less than 50 km within 100 days, in good agreement with the Deep Argo floats deployed as part of a pilot study. The study explores both the representativeness and the predictability of float displacements, with an aim to contribute to planning for the float observing system.

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Dean Roemmich, Jeffrey T. Sherman, Russ E. Davis, Kyle Grindley, Michael McClune, Charles J. Parker, David N. Black, Nathalie Zilberman, Sarah G. Purkey, Philip J. H. Sutton, and John Gilson


Deployment of Deep Argo regional pilot arrays is underway as a step toward a global array of 1250 surface-to-bottom profiling floats embedded in the upper-ocean (2000 m) Argo Program. Of the 80 active Deep Argo floats as of July 2019, 55 are Deep Sounding Oceanographic Lagrangian Observer (SOLO) 6000-m instruments, and the rest are composed of three additional models profiling to either 4000 or 6000 m. Early success of the Deep SOLO is owed partly to its evolution from the Core Argo SOLO-II. Here, Deep SOLO design choices are described, including the spherical glass pressure housing, the hydraulics system, and the passive bottom detection system. Operation of Deep SOLO is flexible, with the mission parameters being adjustable from shore via Iridium communications. Long lifetime is a key element in sustaining a global array, and Deep SOLO combines a long battery life of over 200 cycles to 6000 m with robust operation and a low failure rate. The scientific value of Deep SOLO is illustrated, including examples of its ability (i) to observe large-scale spatial and temporal variability in deep ocean temperature and salinity, (ii) to sample newly formed water masses year-round and within a few meters of the sea floor, and (iii) to explore the poorly known abyssal velocity field and deep circulation of the World Ocean. Deep SOLO’s full-depth range and its potential for global coverage are critical attributes for complementing the Core Argo Program and achieving these objectives.

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