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  • Author or Editor: Niklas Schneider x
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Kohei Takatama and Niklas Schneider

Abstract

The effect of ocean current drag on the atmosphere is of interest as a test case for the role of back pressure, because the response is independent of the thermally induced modulation of the boundary layer stability and hydrostatic pressure. The authors use a regional atmospheric model to investigate the impact of drag induced by the Kuroshio in the East China Sea on the overlying winter atmosphere. Ocean currents dominate the wind stress curl compared to the impacts of sea surface temperature (SST) fronts. Wind stress convergences and divergences are weakly enhanced even though the ocean current is almost geostrophic. These modifications change the linear relationships (coupling coefficients) between the wind stress curl/divergence and the SST Laplacian, crosswind, and downwind gradients. Clear signatures of the ocean current impacts are found beyond the sea surface: sea surface pressure (back pressure) decreases near the current axis, and precipitation increases over the downwind region. However, these responses are very small despite strong Ekman pumping due to the current. A linear reduced gravity model is used to explain the boundary layer dynamics. The linear vorticity equation shows that the oceanic influence on wind stress curl is balanced by horizontal advection decoupling the boundary layer from the interior atmosphere. Spectral transfer functions are used to explain the general response of back pressure to geostrophic ocean currents and sea surface height.

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Niklas Schneider and Bo Qiu

Abstract

The response of the atmospheric boundary layer to fronts of sea surface temperature (SST) is characterized by correlations between wind stress divergence and the downwind component of the SST gradient and between the wind stress curl and the crosswind component of the SST gradient. The associated regression (or coupling) coefficients for the wind stress divergence are consistently larger than those for the wind stress curl. To explore the underlying physics, the authors introduce a linearized model of the atmospheric boundary layer response to SST-induced modulations of boundary layer hydrostatic pressure and vertical mixing in the presence of advection by a background Ekman spiral. Model solutions are a strong function of the SST scale and background advection and recover observed characteristics. The coupling coefficients for wind stress divergence and curl are governed by distinct physics. Wind stress divergence results from either large-scale winds crossing the front or from a thermally direct, cross-frontal circulation. Wind stress curl, expected to be largest when winds are parallel to SST fronts, is reduced through geostrophic spindown and thereby yields weaker coupling coefficients.

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Bunmei Taguchi and Niklas Schneider

Abstract

Upper ocean heat content (OHC) is at the heart of natural climate variability on interannual-to-decadal time scales, providing climate memory and the source of decadal prediction skill. In the midlatitude North Pacific Ocean, OHC signals are often found to propagate eastward as opposed to the frequently observed westward propagation of sea surface height, another variable that represents the ocean subsurface state. This dichotomy is investigated using a 150-yr coupled GCM integration. Simulated OHC signals are distinguished in terms of two processes that can support eastward propagation: higher baroclinic Rossby wave (RW) modes that are associated with density perturbation, and spiciness anomalies due to density-compensated temperature and salinity anomalies. The analysis herein suggests a unique role of the Kuroshio–Oyashio Extension (KOE) region as an origin of the spiciness and higher mode RW signals. Wind-forced, westward-propagating equivalent barotropic RWs cause meridional shifts of the subarctic front in the KOE region. The associated anomalous circulation crosses mean temperature and salinity gradients and thereby generates spiciness anomalies. These anomalies are advected eastward by the mean currents, while the associated surface temperature anomalies are damped by air–sea heat exchange. The accompanying surface buoyancy flux generates higher baroclinic, eastward-propagating RWs. The results suggest that the large OHC variability in the western boundary currents and their extensions is associated with the spiciness gradients and axial variability of oceanic fronts.

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Thomas Kilpatrick, Niklas Schneider, and Bo Qiu

Abstract

Recent studies indicate that the influence of midlatitude SST fronts extends through the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) into the free atmosphere, with implications for climate variability. To better understand the mechanisms of this ocean-to-atmosphere influence, SST-induced MABL convergence is explored here with the Weather Research and Forecasting mesoscale model in an idealized, dry, two-dimensional configuration, for winds crossing from cold to warm SST and from warm to cold SST.

For strong cross-front winds, O(10 m s−1), changes in the turbulent mixing and MABL depth across the SST front lead to MABL depth-integrated convergence in the cold-to-warm case and depth-integrated divergence in the warm-to-cold case. The turbulent stress divergence term changes over a shorter length scale than the pressure gradient and Coriolis terms, such that the MABL response directly above the SST front is governed by nonrotating, internal boundary layer–like physics, which are consistent with the vertical mixing mechanism. An important consequence is that the increment in the cross-front surface stress diagnoses the vertical motion at the top of the MABL. These physics are at variance with some previously proposed SST frontal MABL models in which pressure adjustments determine the MABL convergence.

The SST-induced MABL convergence results in vertical motion that excites a stationary internal gravity wave in the free atmosphere, analogous to a mountain wave. For a 15 m s−1 cross-front wind, the gravity wave forced by an SST increase of 3°C over 200 km is comparable to that forced by an 80-m change in topography.

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Bunmei Taguchi, Niklas Schneider, Masami Nonaka, and Hideharu Sasaki

Abstract

Generation and propagation processes of upper-ocean heat content (OHC) in the North Pacific are investigated using oceanic subsurface observations and an eddy-resolving ocean general circulation model hindcast simulation. OHC anomalies are decomposed into physically distinct dynamical components (OHCρ) due to temperature anomalies that are associated with density anomalies and spiciness components (OHCχ) due to temperature anomalies that are density compensating with salinity. Analysis of the observational and model data consistently shows that both dynamical and spiciness components contribute to interannual–decadal OHC variability, with the former (latter) component dominating in the subtropical (subpolar) North Pacific. OHCρ variability represents heaving of thermocline, propagates westward, and intensifies along the Kuroshio Extension, consistent with jet-trapped Rossby waves, while OHCχ variability propagates eastward along the subarctic frontal zone, suggesting advection by mean eastward currents. OHCχ variability tightly corresponds in space to horizontal mean spiciness gradients. Meanwhile, area-averaged OHCχ anomalies in the western subarctic frontal zone closely correspond in time to meridional shifts of the subarctic frontal zone. Regression coefficient of the OHCχ time series on the frontal displacement anomalies quantitatively agree with the area-averaged mean spiciness gradient in the region, and suggest that OHCχ is generated via frontal variability in the subarctic frontal zone.

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