Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Nitin Bharadwaj x
  • Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Nitin Bharadwaj
and
V. Chandrasekar

Abstract

The use of solid-state transmitters is becoming increasingly viable for atmospheric radars and is a key part of the strategy to realize any dense network of low-powered radars. However, solid-state transmitters have low peak powers and this necessitates the use of pulse compression waveforms. In this paper frequency diversity in a wideband waveform design is proposed to mitigate the low sensitivity of solid-state transmitters. In addition, the waveforms mitigate the range-eclipsing problem associated with long pulse compression. An analysis of the performance of pulse compression using mismatched compression filters designed to minimize sidelobe levels is presented. The impact of the range sidelobe level on the retrieval of Doppler moments is discussed. Realistic simulations are performed based on both the Colorado State University–University of Chicago–Illinois State Water Survey (CSU–CHILL) and the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA) Integrated Project I (IP1) radar data.

Full access
Nitin Bharadwaj
,
V. Chandrasekar
, and
Francesc Junyent

Abstract

This paper describes the waveform design space and signal processing system for dual-polarization Doppler weather radar operating at X band. The performance of the waveforms is presented with ground clutter suppression capability and mitigation of range–velocity ambiguity. The operational waveform is designed based on operational requirements and system/hardware requirements. A dual–Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) waveform was developed and implemented for the first generation X-band radars deployed by the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA). This paper presents an evaluation of the performance of the waveforms based on simulations and data collected by the first-generation CASA radars during operations.

Full access
Pavlos Kollias
,
Nitin Bharadwaj
,
Kevin Widener
,
Ieng Jo
, and
Karen Johnson

Abstract

The acquisition of scanning cloud radars by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and research institutions around the world generates the need for developing operational scan strategies for cloud radars. Here, the first generation of sampling strategies for the scanning ARM cloud radars (SACRs) is presented. These scan strategies are designed to address the scientific objectives of ARM; however, they introduce an initial framework for operational scanning cloud radars. While the weather community uses scan strategies that are based on a sequence of scans at constant elevations, the SACR scan strategies are based on a sequence of scans at constant azimuth. This is attributed to the cloud geometrical properties, which are vastly different from the rain and snow shafts that are the primary targets of precipitation radars; the need to cover the cone of silence; and the scanning limitations of the SACRs. A “cloud surveillance” scan strategy is introduced that is based on a sequence of horizon-to-horizon range–height indicator (RHI) scans that sample the hemispherical sky (HS) every 30° azimuth (HSRHI). The HSRHI scan strategy is complimented with a low-elevation plan position indicator (PPI) scan. The HSRHI and PPI are repeated every 30 min to provide a static view of the cloud conditions around the SACR location. Between the HSRHI and PPI scan strategies, other scan strategies are introduced depending on the cloud conditions. In the future, information about the atmospheric cloud state will be used in a closed-loop process to optimize the selection of the SACR scan strategy.

Full access
Zhe Feng
,
Sally A. McFarlane
,
Courtney Schumacher
,
Scott Ellis
,
Jennifer Comstock
, and
Nitin Bharadwaj

Abstract

To improve understanding of the convective processes key to the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) initiation, the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) and the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) collected 4 months of observations from three radars—the S-band dual-polarization Doppler radar (S-Pol), the C-band Shared Mobile Atmospheric Research and Teaching Radar (SMART-R), and Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR)—along with radiosonde and comprehensive surface meteorological instruments on Addu Atoll, Maldives, in the tropical Indian Ocean. One DYNAMO/AMIE hypothesis suggests that the evolution of shallow and congestus cloud populations is essential to the initiation of the MJO. This study focuses on evaluating the ability of these three radars to document the full spectrum of cloud populations and to construct a merged cloud–precipitation radar dataset that can be used to test this hypothesis. Comparisons between collocated observations from the three radars show that KAZR provides the only reliable estimate of shallow clouds, while S-Pol/SMART-R can reasonably detect congestus within the 30–50-km range in addition to precipitating deep clouds. On the other hand, KAZR underestimates cloud-top heights due to rainfall attenuation in ~34% of the precipitating clouds, and an empirical method to correct KAZR cloud-top height bias is proposed. Finally, a merged KAZR–S-Pol dataset is produced to provide improved cloud-top height estimates, total hydrometeor microphysics, and radiative heating rate retrievals. With this dataset the full spectrum of tropical convective clouds during DYNAMO/AMIE can be reliably constructed and, together with complimentary radiosonde data, it can be used to study the role of shallow and congestus clouds in the initiation of the MJO.

Full access
Pavlos Kollias
,
Ieng Jo
,
Paloma Borque
,
Aleksandra Tatarevic
,
Katia Lamer
,
Nitin Bharadwaj
,
Kevin Widener
,
Karen Johnson
, and
Eugene E. Clothiaux

Abstract

The scanning Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program cloud radars (SACRs) are the primary instruments for documenting the four-dimensional structure and evolution of clouds within a 20–30-km radius of the ARM fixed and mobile sites. Here, the postprocessing of the calibrated SACR measurements is discussed. First, a feature mask algorithm that objectively determines the presence of significant radar returns is described. The feature mask algorithm is based on the statistical properties of radar receiver noise. It accounts for atmospheric emission and is applicable even for SACR profiles with few or no signal-free range gates. Using the nearest-in-time atmospheric sounding, the SACR radar reflectivities are corrected for gaseous attenuation (water vapor and oxygen) using a line-by-line absorption model. Despite having a high pulse repetition frequency, the SACR has a narrow Nyquist velocity limit and thus Doppler velocity folding is commonly observed. An unfolding algorithm that makes use of a first guess for the true Doppler velocity using horizontal wind measurements from the nearest sounding is described. The retrieval of the horizontal wind profile from the hemispherical sky range–height indicator SACR scan observations and/or nearest sounding is described. The retrieved horizontal wind profile can be used to adaptively configure SACR scan strategies that depend on wind direction. Several remaining challenges are discussed, including the removal of insect and second-trip echoes. The described algorithms significantly enhance SACR data quality and constitute an important step toward the utilization of SACR measurements for cloud research.

Full access