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  • Author or Editor: Olivier Bock x
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Sophie Bastin
Cédric Champollion
Olivier Bock
Philippe Drobinski
, and
Frédéric Masson


Global positioning system (GPS) data from a dense network have been used for the analysis of the diurnal cycle of water vapor over Marseille, France, during the second intensive observation period (IOP2; 21–26 June 2001) of the Expérience sur Sites pour Contraindre les Modèles de Pollution Atmosphérique et de Transport d’Emission (ESCOMPTE) field experiment. Both tomographic analyses and integrated water vapor (IWV) contents from GPS have been used, in addition to wind profiler data and surface observations. Tomographic analysis of data from the dense GPS network and radiosondes provided the continuous temporal evolution of the vertical distribution of water vapor over the city of Marseille. The city is located on the shore of the Mediterranean Sea in southeastern France and is often under the influence of sea-breeze effects. Two different layers of breeze circulation are identified: a shallow sea breeze, blowing perpendicular to the local coastline, and a deep sea breeze, induced by the regional temperature gradient between sea and land. The origin of water vapor is shown to be mainly due to the advection of marine moist air by these sea-breeze circulations. However, the diurnal cycle of water vapor over Marseille is strongly influenced by the synoptic situation, which changes during the IOP2 (between a northerly mistral in the early stage of the IOP and an easterly wind at the end). It is shown that vertical profiles from tomographic analyses (combined with wind profiler data) allow for a proper interpretation of the diurnal cycle observed in IWV. Two-dimensional maps of IWV are also shown to complement the description of the horizontal advection of moisture by the different circulation regimes.

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