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  • Author or Editor: P. A. Jones x
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R. A. Pielke
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L. R. Bernardet
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P. J. Fitzpatrick
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R. F. Hertenstein
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A. S. Jones
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X. Lin
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J. E. Nachamkin
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U. S. Nair
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J. M. Papineau
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G. S. Poulos
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M. H. Savoie
, and
P. L. Vidale

In order to assist in comparing the computational techniques used in different models, the authors propose a standardized set of one-dimensional numerical experiments that could be completed for each model. The results of these experiments, with a simplified form of the computational representation for advection, diffusion, pressure gradient term, Coriolis term, and filter used in the models, should be reported in the peer-reviewed literature. Specific recommendations are described in this paper.

Full access
B. W. Golding
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S. P. Ballard
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K. Mylne
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N. Roberts
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A. Saulter
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C. Wilson
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P. Agnew
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L. S. Davis
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J. Trice
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C. Jones
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D. Simonin
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Z. Li
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C. Pierce
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A. Bennett
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M. Weeks
, and
S. Moseley

The provision of weather forecasts for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games in 2012 offered the opportunity for the Met Office to accelerate the transition to operations of several advanced numerical modeling capabilities and to demonstrate their performance to external scientists. It was also an event that captured public interest, providing an opportunity to educate and build trust in the weather forecasting enterprise in the United Kingdom and beyond. The baseline NWP guidance for the duration of the Olympic Games came from three main configurations of the Met Office Unified Model: global 25-km deterministic, North Atlantic/Europe 18-km ensemble, and U.K. 1.5-km deterministic. The advanced capabilities demonstrated during the Olympic Games consisted of a rapid-update hourly cycle of a 1.5-km grid length configuration for the southern United Kingdom using four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) and enhanced observations; a 2.2-km grid length U.K. ensemble; a 333-m grid length configuration of the Unified Model and 250-m configuration of the Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN) ocean wave model for Weymouth Bay; and a 12-km grid length configuration of Air Quality in the Unified Model with prognostic aerosols and chemistry. Despite their different levels of maturity, each of the new capabilities provided useful additional guidance to Met Office weather advisors, contributing to an outstanding service to the Olympic Games organizers and the public. The website provided layered access to information about the science and to selected real-time products, substantially raising the profile of Met Office weather forecasting research among the United Kingdom and overseas public.

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N. R. P. Harris
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L. J. Carpenter
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J. D. Lee
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G. Vaughan
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M. T. Filus
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R. L. Jones
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B. OuYang
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J. A. Pyle
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A. D. Robinson
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S. J. Andrews
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A. C. Lewis
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J. Minaeian
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A. Vaughan
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J. R. Dorsey
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M. W. Gallagher
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M. Le Breton
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R. Newton
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C. J. Percival
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H. M. A. Ricketts
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S. J.-B. Bauguitte
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G. J. Nott
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A. Wellpott
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M. J. Ashfold
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J. Flemming
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R. Butler
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P. I. Palmer
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P. H. Kaye
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C. Stopford
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C. Chemel
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H. Boesch
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N. Humpage
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A. Vick
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A. R. MacKenzie
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R. Hyde
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P. Angelov
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E. Meneguz
, and
A. J. Manning

Abstract

The main field activities of the Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) campaign took place in the west Pacific during January–February 2014. The field campaign was based in Guam (13.5°N, 144.8°E), using the U.K. Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 atmospheric research aircraft, and was coordinated with the Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) project with an unmanned Global Hawk and the Convective Transport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) campaign with a Gulfstream V aircraft. Together, the three aircraft were able to make detailed measurements of atmospheric structure and composition from the ocean surface to 20 km. These measurements are providing new information about the processes influencing halogen and ozone levels in the tropical west Pacific, as well as the importance of trace-gas transport in convection for the upper troposphere and stratosphere. The FAAM aircraft made a total of 25 flights in the region between 1°S and 14°N and 130° and 155°E. It was used to sample at altitudes below 8 km, with much of the time spent in the marine boundary layer. It measured a range of chemical species and sampled extensively within the region of main inflow into the strong west Pacific convection. The CAST team also made ground-based measurements of a number of species (including daily ozonesondes) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program site on Manus Island, Papua New Guinea (2.1°S, 147.4°E). This article presents an overview of the CAST project, focusing on the design and operation of the west Pacific experiment. It additionally discusses some new developments in CAST, including flights of new instruments on board the Global Hawk in February–March 2015.

Open access
W. J. Gutowski Jr.
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P. A. Ullrich
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A. Hall
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L. R. Leung
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T. A. O’Brien
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C. M. Patricola
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R. W. Arritt
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M. S. Bukovsky
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K. V. Calvin
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Z. Feng
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A. D. Jones
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G. J. Kooperman
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E. Monier
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M. S. Pritchard
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S. C. Pryor
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Y. Qian
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A. M. Rhoades
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A. F. Roberts
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K. Sakaguchi
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N. Urban
, and
C. Zarzycki
Full access
W. J. Gutowski Jr
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P. A. Ullrich
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A. Hall
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L. R. Leung
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T. A. O’Brien
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C. M. Patricola
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R. W. Arritt
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M. S. Bukovsky
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K. V. Calvin
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Z. Feng
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A. D. Jones
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G. J. Kooperman
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E. Monier
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M. S. Pritchard
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S. C. Pryor
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Y. Qian
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A. M. Rhoades
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A. F. Roberts
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K. Sakaguchi
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N. Urban
, and
C. Zarzycki

ABSTRACT

Regional climate modeling addresses our need to understand and simulate climatic processes and phenomena unresolved in global models. This paper highlights examples of current approaches to and innovative uses of regional climate modeling that deepen understanding of the climate system. High-resolution models are generally more skillful in simulating extremes, such as heavy precipitation, strong winds, and severe storms. In addition, research has shown that fine-scale features such as mountains, coastlines, lakes, irrigation, land use, and urban heat islands can substantially influence a region’s climate and its response to changing forcings. Regional climate simulations explicitly simulating convection are now being performed, providing an opportunity to illuminate new physical behavior that previously was represented by parameterizations with large uncertainties. Regional and global models are both advancing toward higher resolution, as computational capacity increases. However, the resolution and ensemble size necessary to produce a sufficient statistical sample of these processes in global models has proven too costly for contemporary supercomputing systems. Regional climate models are thus indispensable tools that complement global models for understanding physical processes governing regional climate variability and change. The deeper understanding of regional climate processes also benefits stakeholders and policymakers who need physically robust, high-resolution climate information to guide societal responses to changing climate. Key scientific questions that will continue to require regional climate models, and opportunities are emerging for addressing those questions.

Free access
D. N. Williams
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R. Ananthakrishnan
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D. E. Bernholdt
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S. Bharathi
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D. Brown
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M. Chen
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A. L. Chervenak
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L. Cinquini
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R. Drach
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I. T. Foster
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P. Fox
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D. Fraser
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J. Garcia
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S. Hankin
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P. Jones
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D. E. Middleton
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J. Schwidder
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R. Schweitzer
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R. Schuler
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A. Shoshani
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F. Siebenlist
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A. Sim
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W. G. Strand
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M. Su
, and
N. Wilhelmi

By leveraging current technologies to manage distributed climate data in a unified virtual environment, the Earth System Grid (ESG) project is promoting data sharing between international research centers and diverse users. In transforming these data into a collaborative community resource, ESG is changing the way global climate research is conducted.

Since ESG's production beginnings in 2004, its most notable accomplishment was to efficiently store and distribute climate simulation data of some 20 global coupled ocean-atmosphere models to the scores of scientific contributors to the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC); the IPCC collective scientific achievement was recognized by the award of a 2007 Nobel Peace Prize. Other international climate stakeholders such as the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) and the developers of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) and of the Climate Science Computational End Station (CCES) also have endorsed ESG technologies for disseminating data to their respective user communities. In coming years, the recently created Earth System Grid Center for Enabling Technology (ESG-CET) will extend these methods to assist the international climate community in its efforts to better understand the global climate system.

Full access
R. H. Moss
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S. Avery
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K. Baja
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M. Burkett
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A. M. Chischilly
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J. Dell
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P. A. Fleming
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K. Geil
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K. Jacobs
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A. Jones
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K. Knowlton
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J. Koh
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M. C. Lemos
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J. Melillo
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R. Pandya
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T. C. Richmond
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L. Scarlett
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J. Snyder
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M. Stults
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A. Waple
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J. Whitehead
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D. Zarrilli
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J. Fox
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A. Ganguly
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L. Joppa
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S. Julius
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P. Kirshen
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R. Kreutter
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A. McGovern
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R. Meyer
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J. Neumann
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W. Solecki
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J. Smith
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P. Tissot
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G. Yohe
, and
R. Zimmerman
Full access
J. E. Harries
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J. E. Russell
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J. A. Hanafin
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H. Brindley
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J. Futyan
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J. Rufus
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S. Kellock
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G. Matthews
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R. Wrigley
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A. Last
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J. Mueller
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R. Mossavati
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J. Ashmall
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E. Sawyer
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D. Parker
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M. Caldwell
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P M. Allan
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A. Smith
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M. J. Bates
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B. Coan
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B. C. Stewart
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D. R. Lepine
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L. A. Cornwall
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D. R. Corney
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M. J. Ricketts
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D. Drummond
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D. Smart
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R. Cutler
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S. Dewitte
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N. Clerbaux
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L. Gonzalez
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A. Ipe
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C. Bertrand
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A. Joukoff
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D. Crommelynck
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N. Nelms
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D. T. Llewellyn-Jones
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G. Butcher
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G. L. Smith
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Z. P Szewczyk
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P E. Mlynczak
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A. Slingo
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R. P. Allan
, and
M. A. Ringer

This paper reports on a new satellite sensor, the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) experiment. GERB is designed to make the first measurements of the Earth's radiation budget from geostationary orbit. Measurements at high absolute accuracy of the reflected sunlight from the Earth, and the thermal radiation emitted by the Earth are made every 15 min, with a spatial resolution at the subsatellite point of 44.6 km (north–south) by 39.3 km (east–west). With knowledge of the incoming solar constant, this gives the primary forcing and response components of the top-of-atmosphere radiation. The first GERB instrument is an instrument of opportunity on Meteosat-8, a new spin-stabilized spacecraft platform also carrying the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared (SEVIRI) sensor, which is currently positioned over the equator at 3.5°W. This overview of the project includes a description of the instrument design and its preflight and in-flight calibration. An evaluation of the instrument performance after its first year in orbit, including comparisons with data from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) satellite sensors and with output from numerical models, are also presented. After a brief summary of the data processing system and data products, some of the scientific studies that are being undertaken using these early data are described. This marks the beginning of a decade or more of observations from GERB, as subsequent models will fly on each of the four Meteosat Second Generation satellites.

Full access
C. Donlon
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I. Robinson
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K. S. Casey
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J. Vazquez-Cuervo
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E. Armstrong
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O. Arino
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C. Gentemann
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D. May
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P. LeBorgne
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J. Piollé
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I. Barton
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H. Beggs
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D. J. S. Poulter
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C. J. Merchant
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A. Bingham
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S. Heinz
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A. Harris
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G. Wick
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B. Emery
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P. Minnett
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R. Evans
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D. Llewellyn-Jones
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C. Mutlow
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R. W. Reynolds
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H. Kawamura
, and
N. Rayner

A new generation of integrated sea surface temperature (SST) data products are being provided by the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) High-Resolution SST Pilot Project (GHRSST-PP). These combine in near-real time various SST data products from several different satellite sensors and in situ observations and maintain the fine spatial and temporal resolution needed by SST inputs to operational models. The practical realization of such an approach is complicated by the characteristic differences that exist between measurements of SST obtained from subsurface in-water sensors, and satellite microwave and satellite infrared radiometer systems. Furthermore, diurnal variability of SST within a 24-h period, manifested as both warm-layer and cool-skin deviations, introduces additional uncertainty for direct intercomparison between data sources and the implementation of data-merging strategies. The GHRSST-PP has developed and now operates an internationally distributed system that provides operational feeds of regional and global coverage high-resolution SST data products (better than 10 km and ~6 h). A suite of online satellite SST diagnostic systems are also available within the project. All GHRSST-PP products have a standard format, include uncertainty estimates for each measurement, and are served to the international user community free of charge through a variety of data transport mechanisms and access points. They are being used for a number of operational applications. The approach will also be extended back to 1981 by a dedicated reanalysis project. This paper provides a summary overview of the GHRSST-PP structure, activities, and data products. For a complete discussion, and access to data products and services see the information online at www.ghrsst-pp.org.

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G. K. Grice
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R. J. Trapp
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S. F. Corfidi
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R. Davies-Jones
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C. C. Buonanno
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J. P. Craven
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K. K. Droegemeier
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C. Duchon
,
J. V. Houghton
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R. A. Prentice
,
G. Romine
,
K. Schlachter
, and
K. K. Wagner
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