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  • Author or Editor: P. A. Miller x
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A. M. Rogerson
,
P. D. Miller
,
L. J. Pratt
, and
C. K. R. T. Jones

Abstract

Kinematic models predict that a coherent structure, such as a jet or an eddy, in an unsteady flow can exchange fluid with its surroundings. The authors consider the significance of this effect for a fully nonlinear, dynamically consistent, barotropic model of a meandering jet. The calculated volume transport associated with this fluid exchange is comparable to that of fluid crossing the Gulf Stream through the detachment of rings. Although the model is barotropic and idealized in other ways, the transport calculations suggest that this exchange mechanism may be important in lateral transport or potential vorticity budget analyses for the Gulf Stream and other oceanic jets. The numerically simulated meandering jet is obtained by allowing a small-amplitude unstable meander to grow until a saturated state occurs. The resulting flow is characterized by finite-amplitude meanders propagating with nearly constant speed, and the results clearly illustrate the stretching and stirring of fluid particles along the edges of the recirculation regions south of the meander crests and north of the troughs. The fluid exchange and resulting transport across boundaries separating regions of predominantly prograde, retrograde, and recirculating motion is quantified using a dynamical systems analysis. The geometrical structures that result from the analysis are shown to be closely correlated with regions of the flow that are susceptible to high potential vorticity dissipation. Moreover, in a related study this analysis has been used to effectively predict the entrainment and detrainment of particles to and from the jet.

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Peter R. Oke
,
J. S. Allen
,
R. N. Miller
,
G. D. Egbert
,
J. A. Austin
,
J. A. Barth
,
T. J. Boyd
,
P. M. Kosro
, and
M. D. Levine

Abstract

Sixty-day simulations of the subinertial continental shelf circulation off Oregon are performed for a hindcast study of summer 1999. Model results are compared with in situ currents, high-frequency radar–derived surface currents, and hydrographic measurements obtained from an array of moored instruments and field surveys. The correlations between observed and modeled alongshore currents and temperatures in water depths of 50 m are in excess of 0.8. A study designed to test the model's sensitivity to different initial stratification, surface forcing, domain size, and river forcing demonstrates that surface heating is important, and that the model results are sensitive to initial stratification. An objective criterion for assessing the skill of a model simulation relative to a control simulation is outlined, providing an objective means for identifying the best model simulation. The model–data comparisons demonstrate that temperature fluctuations off Newport are primarily in response to surface heating and that subsurface density fluctuations are controlled by the wind-forced circulation through salinity. Experiments with river forcing indicate that, in the vicinity of Newport, the Columbia River plume is typically greater than 15 km from the coast and is confined to the top few meters of the water column. Additionally, the model–data comparisons suggest that the strongest upwelling occurs to the north of Newport where the continental shelf is relatively narrow and uniform in the alongshore direction. Part II of this study investigates the modeled three-dimensional circulation and dynamical balances.

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James B. Edson
,
Venkata Jampana
,
Robert A. Weller
,
Sebastien P. Bigorre
,
Albert J. Plueddemann
,
Christopher W. Fairall
,
Scott D. Miller
,
Larry Mahrt
,
Dean Vickers
, and
Hans Hersbach

Abstract

This study investigates the exchange of momentum between the atmosphere and ocean using data collected from four oceanic field experiments. Direct covariance estimates of momentum fluxes were collected in all four experiments and wind profiles were collected during three of them. The objective of the investigation is to improve parameterizations of the surface roughness and drag coefficient used to estimate the surface stress from bulk formulas. Specifically, the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) 3.0 bulk flux algorithm is refined to create COARE 3.5. Oversea measurements of dimensionless shear are used to investigate the stability function under stable and convective conditions. The behavior of surface roughness is then investigated over a wider range of wind speeds (up to 25 m s−1) and wave conditions than have been available from previous oversea field studies. The wind speed dependence of the Charnock coefficient α in the COARE algorithm is modified to , where m = 0.017 m−1 s and b = −0.005. When combined with a parameterization for smooth flow, this formulation gives better agreement with the stress estimates from all of the field programs at all winds speeds with significant improvement for wind speeds over 13 m s−1. Wave age– and wave slope–dependent parameterizations of the surface roughness are also investigated, but the COARE 3.5 wind speed–dependent formulation matches the observations well without any wave information. The available data provide a simple reason for why wind speed–, wave age–, and wave slope–dependent formulations give similar results—the inverse wave age varies nearly linearly with wind speed in long-fetch conditions for wind speeds up to 25 m s−1.

Full access
James B. Edson
,
Venkata Jampana
,
Robert A. Weller
,
Sebastien P. Bigorre
,
Albert J. Plueddemann
,
Christopher W. Fairall
,
Scott D. Miller
,
Larry Mahrt
,
Dean Vickers
, and
Hans Hersbach
Full access