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Pascal Marquet, Jean-François Mahfouf, and Daniel Holdaway

Abstract

This study presents a new formulation for the norms and scalar products used in tangent linear or adjoint models to determine forecast errors and sensitivity to observations and to calculate singular vectors. The new norm is derived from the concept of moist-air available enthalpy, which is one of the availability functions referred to as exergy in general thermodynamics. It is shown that the sum of the kinetic energy and the moist-air available enthalpy can be used to define a new moist-air squared norm that is quadratic in 1) wind components, 2) temperature, 3) surface pressure, and 4) water vapor content. Preliminary numerical applications are performed to show that the new weighting factors for temperature and water vapor are significantly different from those used in observation impact studies, and are in better agreement with observed analysis increments. These numerical applications confirm that the weighting factors for water vapor and temperature exhibit a large increase with height (by several orders of magnitude) and a minimum in the midtroposphere, respectively.

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