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  • Author or Editor: Peter H. Lauritzen x
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Kevin A. Reed
,
Brian Medeiros
,
Julio T. Bacmeister
, and
Peter H. Lauritzen

Abstract

In the continued effort to understand the climate system and improve its representation in atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs), it is crucial to develop reduced-complexity frameworks to evaluate these models. This is especially true as the AGCM community advances toward high horizontal resolutions (i.e., grid spacing less than 50 km), which will require interpreting and improving the performance of many model components. A simplified global radiative–convective equilibrium (RCE) configuration is proposed to explore the implication of horizontal resolution on equilibrium climate. RCE is the statistical equilibrium in which the radiative cooling of the atmosphere is balanced by heating due to convection.

In this work, the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 (CAM5), is configured in RCE to better understand tropical climate and extremes. The RCE setup consists of an ocean-covered Earth with diurnally varying, spatially uniform insolation and no rotation effects. CAM5 is run at two horizontal resolutions: a standard resolution of approximately 100-km grid spacing and a high resolution of approximately 25-km spacing. Surface temperature effects are considered by comparing simulations using fixed, uniform sea surface temperature with simulations using an interactive slab-ocean model. The various CAM5 configurations provide useful insights into the simulation of tropical climate as well as the model’s ability to simulate extreme precipitation events. In particular, the manner in which convection organizes is shown to be dependent on model resolution and the surface configuration (including surface temperature), as evident by differences in cloud structure, circulation, and precipitation intensity.

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Aman Gupta
,
Edwin P. Gerber
,
R. Alan Plumb
, and
Peter H. Lauritzen

Abstract

Accurate representation of stratospheric trace gas transport is important for ozone modeling and climate projection. Intermodel spread can arise from differences in the representation of transport by the diabatic (overturning) circulation versus comparatively faster adiabatic mixing by breaking waves, or through numerical errors, primarily diffusion. This study investigates the impact of these processes on transport using an idealized tracer, the age of air. Transport is assessed in two state-of-the-art dynamical cores based on fundamentally different numerical formulations: finite-volume and spectral element. Integrating the models in free-running and nudged tropical wind configurations reveals the crucial impact of tropical dynamics on stratospheric transport. Using age-budget theory, vertical and horizontal gradients of age allow comparison of the roles of the diabatic circulation, adiabatic mixing, and the numerical diffusive flux. Their respective contribution is quantified by connecting the full 3D model to the tropical leaky pipe framework of Neu and Plumb. Transport by the two cores varies significantly in the free-running integrations, with the age in the middle stratosphere differing by about 2 years primarily due to differences in adiabatic mixing. When winds in the tropics are constrained, the difference in age drops to about 0.5 years; in this configuration, more than half the difference is due to the representation of the diabatic circulation. Numerical diffusion is very sensitive to the resolution of the core, but does not play a significant role in differences between the cores when they are run at comparable resolution. It is concluded that fundamental differences rooted in dynamical core formulation can account for a substantial fraction of transport bias between climate models.

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