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  • Author or Editor: R. J. Reed x
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R. Wexler, R. J. Reed, and J. Honig
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Michael J. Reeder, Douglas R. Christie, Roger K. Smith, and Roger Grimshaw

It is just over 15 years since the first major expedition was organized to investigate the “morning glory” phenomenon of northeastern Australia. The authors review briefly what has been learned about the generation and evolution of morning glory disturbances during this time and present data for a particularly interesting event that occurred on 3 October 1991, a day on which two morning glory wave formations, one from the northeast and one from the south, were detected. The morning glories were seen to interact over the Gulf of Carpentaria. Spectacular National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer satellite imagery together with comparatively good surface data are presented for this event. Aspects of the interaction between the northeasterly and southerly morning glories are shown to be consistent with theoretical predictions concerning solitary wave interactions.

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J. A. Curry, C. A. Clayson, W. B. Rossow, R. Reeder, Y.-C. Zhang, P. J. Webster, G. Liu, and R.-S. Sheu

An integrated approach is presented for determining from several different satellite datasets all of the components of the tropical sea surface fluxes of heat, freshwater, and momentum. The methodology for obtaining the surface turbulent and radiative fluxes uses physical properties of the atmosphere and surface retrieved from satellite observations as inputs into models of the surface turbulent and radiative flux processes. The precipitation retrieval combines analysis of satellite microwave brightness temperatures with a statistical model employing satellite observations of visible/infrared radiances. A high-resolution dataset has been prepared for the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) intensive observation period (IOP), with a spatial resolution of 50 km and temporal resolution of 3 h. The high spatial resolution is needed to resolve the diurnal and mesoscale storm-related variations of the fluxes. The fidelity of the satellite-derived surface fluxes is examined by comparing them with in situ measurements obtained from ships and aircraft during the TOGA COARE IOP and from vertically integrated budgets of heat and freshwater for the atmosphere and ocean. The root-mean-square differences between the satellite-derived and in situ fluxes are dominated by limitations in the satellite sampling; these are reduced when some averaging is done, particularly for the precipitation (which is from a statistical algorithm) and the surface solar radiation (which uses spatially sampled satellite pixels). Nevertheless, the fluxes are determined with a useful accuracy, even at the highest temporal and spatial resolution. By compiling the fluxes at such high resolution, users of the dataset can decide whether and how to average for particular purposes. For example, over time, space, or similar weather events.

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Janet Sprintall, Victoria J. Coles, Kevin A. Reed, Amy H. Butler, Gregory R. Foltz, Stephen G. Penny, and Hyodae Seo

Abstract

Process studies are designed to improve our understanding of poorly described physical processes that are central to the behavior of the climate system. They typically include coordinated efforts of intensive field campaigns in the atmosphere and/or ocean to collect a carefully planned set of in situ observations. Ideally the observational portion of a process study is paired with numerical modeling efforts that lead to better representation of a poorly simulated or previously neglected physical process in operational and research models. This article provides a framework of best practices to help guide scientists in carrying out more productive, collaborative, and successful process studies. Topics include the planning and implementation of a process study and the associated web of logistical challenges; the development of focused science goals and testable hypotheses; and the importance of assembling an integrated and compatible team with a diversity of social identity, gender, career stage, and scientific background. Guidelines are also provided for scientific data management, dissemination, and stewardship. Above all, developing trust and continual communication within the science team during the field campaign and analysis phase are key for process studies. We consider a successful process study as one that ultimately will improve our quantitative understanding of the mechanisms responsible for climate variability and enhance our ability to represent them in climate models.

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EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, R. J. Reed, W. W. Kellogg, A. K. Blackadar, G. P. Cressman, C. L. Hosler, W. J. Kotsch, K. C. Spengler, and D. F. Landrigan
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EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE, W. W. Kellogg, D. S. Johnson, R. J. Reed, C. L. Hosier, W. J. Kotsch, P. D. McTaggart-Cowan, K. C. Spengler, and D. F. Landrigan
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Executive Committee, A. K. Blackadar, R. J. Reed, E. Bollay, W. B. Beckwith, W. V. Burt, G. P. Cressman, K. C. Spengler, and D. F. Landrigan
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Steven J. Goodman, James Gurka, Mark DeMaria, Timothy J. Schmit, Anthony Mostek, Gary Jedlovec, Chris Siewert, Wayne Feltz, Jordan Gerth, Renate Brummer, Steven Miller, Bonnie Reed, and Richard R. Reynolds

The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R series (GOES-R) Proving Ground engages the National Weather Service (NWS) forecast, watch, and warning community and other agency users in preoperational demonstrations of the new and advanced capabilities to be available from GOES-R compared to the current GOES constellation. GOES-R will provide significant advances in observing capabilities but will also offer a significant challenge to ensure that users are ready to exploit the new 16-channel imager that will provide 3 times more spectral information, 4 times the spatial coverage, and 5 times the temporal resolution compared to the current imager. In addition, a geostationary lightning mapper will provide continuous and near-uniform real-time surveillance of total lightning activity throughout the Americas and adjacent oceans encompassing much of the Western Hemisphere. To ensure user readiness, forecasters and other users must have access to prototype advanced products within their operational environment well before launch. Examples of the advanced products include improved volcanic ash detection, lightning detection, 1-min-interval rapid-scan imagery, dust and aerosol detection, and synthetic cloud and moisture imagery. A key component of the GOES-R Proving Ground is the two-way interaction between the researchers who introduce new products and techniques and the forecasters who then provide feedback and ideas for improvements that can best be incorporated into NOAA's integrated observing and analysis operations. In 2012 and beyond, the GOES-R Proving Ground will test and validate display and visualization techniques, decision aids, future capabilities, training materials, and the data processing and product distribution systems to enable greater use of these products in operational settings.

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J. A. Curry, A. Bentamy, M. A. Bourassa, D. Bourras, E. F. Bradley, M. Brunke, S. Castro, S. H. Chou, C. A. Clayson, W. J. Emery, L. Eymard, C. W. Fairall, M. Kubota, B. Lin, W. Perrie, R. A. Reeder, I. A. Renfrew, W. B. Rossow, J. Schulz, S. R. Smith, P. J. Webster, G. A. Wick, and X. Zeng

High-resolution surface fluxes over the global ocean are needed to evaluate coupled atmosphere–ocean models and weather forecasting models, provide surface forcing for ocean models, understand the regional and temporal variations of the exchange of heat between the atmosphere and ocean, and provide a large-scale context for field experiments. Under the auspices of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Radiation Panel, the SEAFLUX Project has been initiated to investigate producing a high-resolution satellite-based dataset of surface turbulent fluxes over the global oceans to complement the existing products for surface radiation fluxes and precipitation. The SEAFLUX Project includes the following elements: a library of in situ data, with collocated satellite data to be used in the evaluation and improvement of global flux products; organized intercomparison projects, to evaluate and improve bulk flux models and determination from the satellite of the input parameters; and coordinated evaluation of the flux products in the context of applications, such as forcing ocean models and evaluation of coupled atmosphere–ocean models. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the status of global ocean surface flux products, the methodology being used by SEAFLUX, and the prospects for improvement of satellite-derived flux products.

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Gail Skofronick-Jackson, David Hudak, Walter Petersen, Stephen W. Nesbitt, V. Chandrasekar, Stephen Durden, Kirstin J. Gleicher, Gwo-Jong Huang, Paul Joe, Pavlos Kollias, Kimberly A. Reed, Mathew R. Schwaller, Ronald Stewart, Simone Tanelli, Ali Tokay, James R. Wang, and Mengistu Wolde

Abstract

As a component of Earth’s hydrologic cycle, and especially at higher latitudes, falling snow creates snowpack accumulation that in turn provides a large proportion of the freshwater resources required by many communities throughout the world. To assess the relationships between remotely sensed snow measurements with in situ measurements, a winter field project, termed the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Cold Season Precipitation Experiment (GCPEx), was carried out in the winter of 2011/12 in Ontario, Canada. Its goal was to provide information on the precipitation microphysics and processes associated with cold season precipitation to support GPM snowfall retrieval algorithms that make use of a dual-frequency precipitation radar and a passive microwave imager on board the GPM core satellite and radiometers on constellation member satellites. Multiparameter methods are required to be able to relate changes in the microphysical character of the snow to measureable parameters from which precipitation detection and estimation can be based. The data collection strategy was coordinated, stacked, high-altitude, and in situ cloud aircraft missions with three research aircraft sampling within a broader surface network of five ground sites that in turn were taking in situ and volumetric observations. During the field campaign 25 events were identified and classified according to their varied precipitation type, synoptic context, and precipitation amount. Herein, the GCPEx field campaign is described and three illustrative cases detailed.

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