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R. K. Reed

Abstract

Weather reports for the 1970s decade were used to derive the mean annual distributions of surface properties and to compute the surface fluxes of heat over the tropical Pacific Ocean. The net heat flux obtained was greater than other estimates, and there is an annual heat gain by the ocean everywhere between 20°N and 20°S. The amounts and patterns appear plausible when compared with major features of the ocean circulation. The seasonal cycles of sea surface temperature, net heat flux, and wind speed were examined for eight regions; the results suggest that, except off Peru and near the equator, the seasonal variation of surface temperature is caused by variations in surface heat flux.

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R. K. Reed

Abstract

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R. K. Reed

Abstract

Measurements of insolation at sea are reported and used to compare with a recent empirical formula for computing insolation. The measured and computed results are in good general agreement over a vast region of the eastern Pacific between 7°S and 66°N. Measurements and computations differ by a few percent in the mean over some regions, apparently because of atypical cloud cover.

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R. K. Reed

Abstract

No abstract available.

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R. K. Reed

Abstract

Recent oceanic data and measurements at Johnston Island were used to examine insolation over the tropical Pacific by comparison with empirical formulas which are reliable for mid-latitudes. In the eastern Pacific the observed insolation is in reasonable agreement with the formulas, but over the central and western parts of the ocean the observed values are systematically larger than the estimates. This is in agreement with earlier studies of Quinn and Burt who concluded that insolation over these areas was greater than estimates from formulas because of extensive cirrus cloudiness in the absence of other types. Finally, it is concluded that Budyko's climatological values are too low in the tropics, primarily because of systematic errors in the formulas that he used.

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R. K. Reed

Abstract

Recent estimates of oceanic rainfall were compared with measured amounts at 35 islands in the central and western North Pacific. A group of stations on small atolls in a region of convective rainfall had amounts that were 1.2 times that over the open ocean; but other low islands in an area of frontal rain received over twice as much rainfall as at sea. The greatest rainfall occurred at a group of high islands in the western Pacific. Even on small atolls, island data are not reliable indices of oceanic rainfall.

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R. K. Reed

Abstract

Data at 12 ocean weather stations were used to determine the amount of precipitation by a method devised by Tucker (1961), and precipitation frequency at each site was taken from recent climatic atlases. By combining the above data, monthly and annual estimates of precipitation intensity were calculated. The monthly intensities were then corrected for a suspected bias in Tucker's assessments. Precipitation can be calculated from these intensities and climatological maps of frequency; monthly and annual values have standard deviations of 12 and 9% of the means, respectively. The results are believed to have general applicability to extratropical regions. Furthermore, in data-sparse areas, use of intensities with frequencies can provide a more reliable estimate of oceanic rainfall amounts than Tucker's method.

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R. K. Reed and R. E. Brainard

Abstract

In an effort to verify computational methods for ocean heat budgets, observations of insulation under clear skies for 26 days were compared with values computed by a formula previously derived from the Smithsonian Tables. The agreement between the observations and formula was within 2.0% for three groups of data over the Pacific between 10°S and 47°N. Random and systematic errors in the formula appear to be insignificant in these regions, but its validity is uncertain at higher latitudes.

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R. K. Reed and W. P. Elliott

Abstract

The problems of using raingages on ships are discussed, and methods of estimating rainfall from weather reports at sea are reviewed, with emphasis on discussion of efforts to verify the assessments derived by Tucker (1961). A raingage was used on cruises of the NOAA ship Oceanographer in the eastern Pacific during 1975 and 1976, and rainfall was estimated from weather reports using Tucker's assessments. In extratropical latitudes (mainly 40–60°N), a catch of 35 cm was obtained; estimates from the weather reports gave a value of 31 cm. Thus Tucker's assessments are essentially in agreement with catches from a small gage in this region. In the tropics, however, the agreement was not good. Almost three times as much rain was caught as was estimated; hence Tucker's coefficients will need to be reevaluated for this area.

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W. P. Elliott and R. K. Reed

Abstract

Climatological estimates of mean annual precipitation over the world ocean are presented and discussed. We obtained a value for mean annual oceanic precipitation (between 65°N and 60°S) of 93 cm, which is smaller than some other estimates. These results are supported by a recent analysis of tropical rainfall based on satellite techniques. Aspects of the need for and utility of climatological information are discussed.

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