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The Climode Group:, J. Marshall, R. Ferrari, G. Forget, G. Maze, A. Andersson, N. Bates, W. Dewar, S. Doney, D. Fratantoni, T. Joyce, F. Straneo, J. Toole, R. Weller, J. Edson, M. Gregg, K. Kelly, S. Lozier, J. Palter, R. Lumpkin, R. Samelson, E. Skyllingstad, K. Silverthorne, L. Talley, and L. Thomas


A major oceanographic field experiment is described, which is designed to observe, quantify, and understand the creation and dispersal of weakly stratified fluid known as “mode water” in the region of the Gulf Stream. Formed in the wintertime by convection driven by the most intense air–sea fluxes observed anywhere over the globe, the role of mode waters in the general circulation of the subtropical gyre and its biogeo-chemical cycles is also addressed. The experiment is known as the CLIVAR Mode Water Dynamic Experiment (CLIMODE). Here we review the scientific objectives of the experiment and present some preliminary results.

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