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Ralph D. Reynolds

Abstract

Synchronous radar, temperature and pressure data of suitable quality, gathered from three balloon flights of the Mountain Wave Project, were analyzed in detail to show the relationships between balloon-depicted waves and isentropic and isopycnic waves. Results show that in wave conditions, superpressure balloons: 1) follow the undulations of density surfaces but overestimate crests and troughs of waves by an average error of 6%; and 2) follow isentropic surfaces, but underestimate true wave crests by.an average error of 5%, and true wave troughs by errors averaging 30%.

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Ralph D. Reynolds

Abstract

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Ralph D. Reynolds and Roy L. Lamberth

Abstract

A cause of erroneous temperatures obtained in the earlier phases of a study using standard radiosondes flown on constant-level balloons at White Sands Missile Range is discussed. A simple and inexpensive modification of the radiosondes which produces more accurate ambient temperatures on daylight flights is described.

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Ralph D. Reynolds, Roy L. Lamberth, and M. G. Wurtele

Abstract

A complex mountain lee wave was recorded by radar-tracked superpressure balloons at White Sands Missile Range on 6 May 1965 at a mean altitude of 3.5 km MSL; simultaneously, a very weak wave was recorded at 7 km. The lower complex wave showed variable wavelengths, amplitudes, and increasing vertical velocities with time.

Several of the better existing mountain wave theories were tested against the data to determine which theory or theories, if any, could explain the physical cause of the particular features of the complex wave.

It was found that existing theoretical models are too simplified to apply to the condition in the observed wave and explain only its grosser features. If our understanding of gravity waves is to be adequate to explain quantitatively what we are capable of observing quantitatively, we must begin the anlysis of more realistic models or turn to numerical integration of the relevant equations.

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Roy I. Glass, Ralph D. Reynolds, and Roy L. Lamberth

Abstract

This paper describes how continuous pressure measurements may be obtained by making a relatively simple modification to any standard or clock-switched radiosonde which can be flown on a rising or floating balloon. The continuous pressure device is composed of an aneroid sensor which controls the frequency of a subcarrier oscillator. Frequency modulation of the radiosonde transmitting tube is used instead of amplitude modulation. The receiver for this system utilizes the standard GMD-1B ground tracker with a special demodulator, the standard TMQ-5 recorder, and a frequency counter with printer. Each pressure sensor is calibrated for frequency vs. pressure; precision of reading the pressure is to 1 mb as currently used, but readings to 0.1 mb are easily obtainable.

Pressure data from three superpressure balloon flights are presented to show the detail obtained by the instrument with this modification. This modified instrument provides the research meteorologist with a new inexpensive research tool.

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