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James L. Partain Jr.
,
Sharon Alden
,
Heidi Strader
,
Uma S. Bhatt
,
Peter A. Bieniek
,
Brian R. Brettschneider
,
John E. Walsh
,
Rick T. Lader
,
Peter Q. Olsson
,
T. Scott Rupp
,
Richard L. Thoman Jr.
,
Alison D. York
, and
Robert H. Ziel
Full access
Nicholas A. Bond
,
Clifford F. Mass
,
Bradley F. Smull
,
Robert A. Houze
,
Ming-Jen Yang
,
Brian A. Colle
,
Scott A. Braun
,
M. A. Shapiro
,
Bradley R. Colman
,
Paul J. Neiman
,
James E. Overland
,
William D. Neff
, and
James D. Doyle

The Coastal Observation and Simulation with Topography (COAST) program has examined the interaction of both steady-state and transient cool-season synoptic features, such as fronts and cyclones, with the coastal terrain of western North America. Its objectives include better understanding and forecasting of landfalling weather systems and, in particular, the modification and creation of mesoscale structures by coastal orography. In addition, COAST has placed considerable emphasis on the evaluation of mesoscale models in coastal terrain. These goals have been addressed through case studies of storm and frontal landfall along the Pacific Northwest coast using special field observations from a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration WP-3D research aircraft and simulations from high-resolution numerical models. The field work was conducted during December 1993 and December 1995. Active weather conditions encompassing a variety of synoptic situations were sampled. This article presents an overview of the program as well as highlights from a sample of completed and ongoing case studies.

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AIRS

Improving Weather Forecasting and Providing New Data on Greenhouse Gases

MOUSTAFA T. CHAHINE
,
THOMAS S. PAGANO
,
HARTMUT H. AUMANN
,
ROBERT ATLAS
,
CHRISTOPHER BARNET
,
JOHN BLAISDELL
,
LUKE CHEN
,
MURTY DIVAKARLA
,
ERIC J. FETZER
,
MITCH GOLDBERG
,
CATHERINE GAUTIER
,
STEPHANIE GRANGER
,
SCOTT HANNON
,
FREDRICK W. IRION
,
RAMESH KAKAR
,
EUGENIA KALNAY
,
BJORN H. LAMBRIGTSEN
,
SUNG-YUNG LEE
,
JOHN Le MARSHALL
,
W. WALLACE MCMILLAN
,
LARRY MCMILLIN
,
EDWARD T. OLSEN
,
HENRY REVERCOMB
,
PHILIP ROSENKRANZ
,
WILLIAM L. SMITH
,
DAVID STAELIN
,
L. LARRABEE STROW
,
JOEL SUSSKIND
,
DAVID TOBIN
,
WALTER WOLF
, and
LIHANG ZHOU

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and its two companion microwave sounders, AMSU and HSB were launched into polar orbit onboard the NASA Aqua Satellite in May 2002. NASA required the sounding system to provide high-quality research data for climate studies and to meet NOAA's requirements for improving operational weather forecasting. The NOAA requirement translated into global retrieval of temperature and humidity profiles with accuracies approaching those of radiosondes. AIRS also provides new measurements of several greenhouse gases, such as CO2, CO, CH4, O3, SO2, and aerosols.

The assimilation of AIRS data into operational weather forecasting has already demonstrated significant improvements in global forecast skill. At NOAA/NCEP, the improvement in the forecast skill achieved at 6 days is equivalent to gaining an extension of forecast capability of six hours. This improvement is quite significant when compared to other forecast improvements over the last decade. In addition to NCEP, ECMWF and the Met Office have also reported positive forecast impacts due AIRS.

AIRS is a hyperspectral sounder with 2,378 infrared channels between 3.7 and 15.4 μm. NOAA/NESDIS routinely distributes AIRS data within 3 hours to NWP centers around the world. The AIRS design represents a breakthrough in infrared space instrumentation with measurement stability and accuracies far surpassing any current research or operational sounder..The results we describe in this paper are “work in progress,” and although significant accomplishments have already been made much more work remains in order to realize the full potential of this suite of instruments.

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Adam J. Clark
,
Israel L. Jirak
,
Burkely T. Gallo
,
Brett Roberts
,
Kent. H. Knopfmeier
,
Robert A. Clark
,
Jake Vancil
,
Andrew R. Dean
,
Kimberly A. Hoogewind
,
Pamela L. Heinselman
,
Nathan A. Dahl
,
Makenzie J. Krocak
,
Jessica J. Choate
,
Katie A. Wilson
,
Patrick S. Skinner
,
Thomas A. Jones
,
Yunheng Wang
,
Gerald J. Creager
,
Larissa J. Reames
,
Louis J. Wicker
,
Scott R. Dembek
, and
Steven J. Weiss
Free access
Taneil Uttal
,
Judith A. Curry
,
Miles G. McPhee
,
Donald K. Perovich
,
Richard E. Moritz
,
James A. Maslanik
,
Peter S. Guest
,
Harry L. Stern
,
James A. Moore
,
Rene Turenne
,
Andreas Heiberg
,
Mark. C. Serreze
,
Donald P. Wylie
,
Ola G. Persson
,
Clayton A. Paulson
,
Christopher Halle
,
James H. Morison
,
Patricia A. Wheeler
,
Alexander Makshtas
,
Harold Welch
,
Matthew D. Shupe
,
Janet M. Intrieri
,
Knut Stamnes
,
Ronald W. Lindsey
,
Robert Pinkel
,
W. Scott Pegau
,
Timothy P. Stanton
, and
Thomas C. Grenfeld

A summary is presented of the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) project, with a focus on the field experiment that was conducted from October 1997 to October 1998. The primary objective of the field work was to collect ocean, ice, and atmospheric datasets over a full annual cycle that could be used to understand the processes controlling surface heat exchanges—in particular, the ice–albedo feedback and cloud–radiation feedback. This information is being used to improve formulations of arctic ice–ocean–atmosphere processes in climate models and thereby improve simulations of present and future arctic climate. The experiment was deployed from an ice breaker that was frozen into the ice pack and allowed to drift for the duration of the experiment. This research platform allowed the use of an extensive suite of instruments that directly measured ocean, atmosphere, and ice properties from both the ship and the ice pack in the immediate vicinity of the ship. This summary describes the project goals, experimental design, instrumentation, and the resulting datasets. Examples of various data products available from the SHEBA project are presented.

Full access
Adam J. Clark
,
Israel L. Jirak
,
Burkely T. Gallo
,
Brett Roberts
,
Andrew R. Dean
,
Kent H. Knopfmeier
,
Louis J. Wicker
,
Makenzie Krocak
,
Patrick S. Skinner
,
Pamela L. Heinselman
,
Katie A. Wilson
,
Jake Vancil
,
Kimberly A. Hoogewind
,
Nathan A. Dahl
,
Gerald J. Creager
,
Thomas A. Jones
,
Jidong Gao
,
Yunheng Wang
,
Eric D. Loken
,
Montgomery Flora
,
Christopher A. Kerr
,
Nusrat Yussouf
,
Scott R. Dembek
,
William Miller
,
Joshua Martin
,
Jorge Guerra
,
Brian Matilla
,
David Jahn
,
David Harrison
,
David Imy
, and
Michael C. Coniglio
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Randall M. Dole
,
J. Ryan Spackman
,
Matthew Newman
,
Gilbert P. Compo
,
Catherine A. Smith
,
Leslie M. Hartten
,
Joseph J. Barsugli
,
Robert S. Webb
,
Martin P. Hoerling
,
Robert Cifelli
,
Klaus Wolter
,
Christopher D. Barnet
,
Maria Gehne
,
Ronald Gelaro
,
George N. Kiladis
,
Scott Abbott
,
Elena Akish
,
John Albers
,
John M. Brown
,
Christopher J. Cox
,
Lisa Darby
,
Gijs de Boer
,
Barbara DeLuisi
,
Juliana Dias
,
Jason Dunion
,
Jon Eischeid
,
Christopher Fairall
,
Antonia Gambacorta
,
Brian K. Gorton
,
Andrew Hoell
,
Janet Intrieri
,
Darren Jackson
,
Paul E. Johnston
,
Richard Lataitis
,
Kelly M. Mahoney
,
Katherine McCaffrey
,
H. Alex McColl
,
Michael J. Mueller
,
Donald Murray
,
Paul J. Neiman
,
William Otto
,
Ola Persson
,
Xiao-Wei Quan
,
Imtiaz Rangwala
,
Andrea J. Ray
,
David Reynolds
,
Emily Riley Dellaripa
,
Karen Rosenlof
,
Naoko Sakaeda
,
Prashant D. Sardeshmukh
,
Laura C. Slivinski
,
Lesley Smith
,
Amy Solomon
,
Dustin Swales
,
Stefan Tulich
,
Allen White
,
Gary Wick
,
Matthew G. Winterkorn
,
Daniel E. Wolfe
, and
Robert Zamora

Abstract

Forecasts by mid-2015 for a strong El Niño during winter 2015/16 presented an exceptional scientific opportunity to accelerate advances in understanding and predictions of an extreme climate event and its impacts while the event was ongoing. Seizing this opportunity, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) initiated an El Niño Rapid Response (ENRR), conducting the first field campaign to obtain intensive atmospheric observations over the tropical Pacific during El Niño.

The overarching ENRR goal was to determine the atmospheric response to El Niño and the implications for predicting extratropical storms and U.S. West Coast rainfall. The field campaign observations extended from the central tropical Pacific to the West Coast, with a primary focus on the initial tropical atmospheric response that links El Niño to its global impacts. NOAA deployed its Gulfstream-IV (G-IV) aircraft to obtain observations around organized tropical convection and poleward convective outflow near the heart of El Niño. Additional tropical Pacific observations were obtained by radiosondes launched from Kiritimati , Kiribati, and the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown, and in the eastern North Pacific by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global Hawk unmanned aerial system. These observations were all transmitted in real time for use in operational prediction models. An X-band radar installed in Santa Clara, California, helped characterize precipitation distributions. This suite supported an end-to-end capability extending from tropical Pacific processes to West Coast impacts. The ENRR observations were used during the event in operational predictions. They now provide an unprecedented dataset for further research to improve understanding and predictions of El Niño and its impacts.

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Maurice Blackmon
,
Byron Boville
,
Frank Bryan
,
Robert Dickinson
,
Peter Gent
,
Jeffrey Kiehl
,
Richard Moritz
,
David Randall
,
Jagadish Shukla
,
Susan Solomon
,
Gordon Bonan
,
Scott Doney
,
Inez Fung
,
James Hack
,
Elizabeth Hunke
,
James Hurrell
,
John Kutzbach
,
Jerry Meehl
,
Bette Otto-Bliesner
,
R. Saravanan
,
Edwin K. Schneider
,
Lisa Sloan
,
Michael Spall
,
Karl Taylor
,
Joseph Tribbia
, and
Warren Washington

The Community Climate System Model (CCSM) has been created to represent the principal components of the climate system and their interactions. Development and applications of the model are carried out by the U.S. climate research community, thus taking advantage of both wide intellectual participation and computing capabilities beyond those available to most individual U.S. institutions. This article outlines the history of the CCSM, its current capabilities, and plans for its future development and applications, with the goal of providing a summary useful to present and future users.

The initial version of the CCSM included atmosphere and ocean general circulation models, a land surface model that was grafted onto the atmosphere model, a sea-ice model, and a “flux coupler” that facilitates information exchanges among the component models with their differing grids. This version of the model produced a successful 300-yr simulation of the current climate without artificial flux adjustments. The model was then used to perform a coupled simulation in which the atmospheric CO2 concentration increased by 1 % per year.

In this version of the coupled model, the ocean salinity and deep-ocean temperature slowly drifted away from observed values. A subsequent correction to the roughness length used for sea ice significantly reduced these errors. An updated version of the CCSM was used to perform three simulations of the twentieth century's climate, and several projections of the climate of the twenty-first century.

The CCSM's simulation of the tropical ocean circulation has been significantly improved by reducing the background vertical diffusivity and incorporating an anisotropic horizontal viscosity tensor. The meridional resolution of the ocean model was also refined near the equator. These changes have resulted in a greatly improved simulation of both the Pacific equatorial undercurrent and the surface countercurrents. The interannual variability of the sea surface temperature in the central and eastern tropical Pacific is also more realistic in simulations with the updated model.

Scientific challenges to be addressed with future versions of the CCSM include realistic simulation of the whole atmosphere, including the middle and upper atmosphere, as well as the troposphere; simulation of changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the incorporation of an integrated chemistry model; inclusion of global, prognostic biogeochemical components for land, ocean, and atmosphere; simulations of past climates, including times of extensive continental glaciation as well as times with little or no ice; studies of natural climate variability on seasonal-to-centennial timescales; and investigations of anthropogenic climate change. In order to make such studies possible, work is under way to improve all components of the model. Plans call for a new version of the CCSM to be released in 2002. Planned studies with the CCSM will require much more computer power than is currently available.

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J. K. Andersen
,
Liss M. Andreassen
,
Emily H. Baker
,
Thomas J. Ballinger
,
Logan T. Berner
,
Germar H. Bernhard
,
Uma S. Bhatt
,
Jarle W. Bjerke
,
Jason E. Box
,
L. Britt
,
R. Brown
,
David Burgess
,
John Cappelen
,
Hanne H. Christiansen
,
B. Decharme
,
C. Derksen
,
D. S. Drozdov
,
Howard E. Epstein
,
L. M. Farquharson
,
Sinead L. Farrell
,
Robert S. Fausto
,
Xavier Fettweis
,
Vitali E. Fioletov
,
Bruce C. Forbes
,
Gerald V. Frost
,
Sebastian Gerland
,
Scott J. Goetz
,
Jens-Uwe Grooß
,
Edward Hanna
,
Inger Hanssen-Bauer
,
Stefan Hendricks
,
Iolanda Ialongo
,
K. Isaksen
,
Bjørn Johnsen
,
L. Kaleschke
,
A. L. Kholodov
,
Seong-Joong Kim
,
Jack Kohler
,
Zachary Labe
,
Carol Ladd
,
Kaisa Lakkala
,
Mark J. Lara
,
Bryant Loomis
,
Bartłomiej Luks
,
K. Luojus
,
Matthew J. Macander
,
G. V. Malkova
,
Kenneth D. Mankoff
,
Gloria L. Manney
,
J. M. Marsh
,
Walt Meier
,
Twila A. Moon
,
Thomas Mote
,
L. Mudryk
,
F. J. Mueter
,
Rolf Müller
,
K. E. Nyland
,
Shad O’Neel
,
James E. Overland
,
Don Perovich
,
Gareth K. Phoenix
,
Martha K. Raynolds
,
C. H. Reijmer
,
Robert Ricker
,
Vladimir E. Romanovsky
,
E. A. G. Schuur
,
Martin Sharp
,
Nikolai I. Shiklomanov
,
C. J. P. P. Smeets
,
Sharon L. Smith
,
Dimitri A. Streletskiy
,
Marco Tedesco
,
Richard L. Thoman
,
J. T. Thorson
,
X. Tian-Kunze
,
Mary-Louise Timmermans
,
Hans Tømmervik
,
Mark Tschudi
,
Dirk van As
,
R. S. W. van de Wal
,
Donald A. Walker
,
John E. Walsh
,
Muyin Wang
,
Melinda Webster
,
Øyvind Winton
,
Gabriel J. Wolken
,
K. Wood
,
Bert Wouters
, and
S. Zador
Free access
Matthew L. Druckenmiller
,
Twila A. Moon
,
Richard L. Thoman
,
Thomas J. Ballinger
,
Logan T. Berner
,
Germar H. Bernhard
,
Uma S. Bhatt
,
Jarle W. Bjerke
,
Jason E. Box
,
R. Brown
,
John Cappelen
,
Hanne H. Christiansen
,
B. Decharme
,
C. Derksen
,
Dmitry Divine
,
D. S. Drozdov
,
A. Elias Chereque
,
Howard E. Epstein
,
L. M. Farquharson
,
Sinead L. Farrell
,
Robert S. Fausto
,
Xavier Fettweis
,
Vitali E. Fioletov
,
Bruce C. Forbes
,
Gerald V. Frost
,
Emily Gargulinski
,
Sebastian Gerland
,
Scott J. Goetz
,
Z. Grabinski
,
Jens-Uwe Grooß
,
Christian Haas
,
Edward Hanna
,
Inger Hanssen-Bauer
,
Stefan Hendricks
,
Robert M. Holmes
,
Iolanda Ialongo
,
K. Isaksen
,
Piyush Jain
,
Bjørn Johnsen
,
L. Kaleschke
,
A. L. Kholodov
,
Seong-Joong Kim
,
Niels J. Korsgaard
,
Zachary Labe
,
Kaisa Lakkala
,
Mark J. Lara
,
Bryant Loomis
,
K. Luojus
,
Matthew J. Macander
,
G. V. Malkova
,
Kenneth D. Mankoff
,
Gloria L. Manney
,
James W. McClelland
,
Walter N. Meier
,
Thomas Mote
,
L. Mudryk
,
Rolf Müller
,
K. E. Nyland
,
James E. Overland
,
T. Park
,
Olga Pavlova
,
Don Perovich
,
Alek Petty
,
Gareth K. Phoenix
,
Martha K. Raynolds
,
C. H. Reijmer
,
Jacqueline Richter-Menge
,
Robert Ricker
,
Vladimir E. Romanovsky
,
Lindsay Scott
,
Hazel Shapiro
,
Alexander I. Shiklomanov
,
Nikolai I. Shiklomanov
,
C. J. P. P. Smeets
,
Sharon L. Smith
,
Amber Soja
,
Robert G. M. Spencer
,
Sandy Starkweather
,
Dimitri A. Streletskiy
,
Anya Suslova
,
Tove Svendby
,
Suzanne E. Tank
,
Marco Tedesco
,
X. Tian-Kunze
,
Mary-Louise Timmermans
,
Hans Tømmervik
,
Mikhail Tretiakov
,
Mark Tschudi
,
Sofia Vakhutinsky
,
Dirk van As
,
R. S. W. van de Wal
,
Sander Veraverbeke
,
Donald A. Walker
,
John E. Walsh
,
Muyin Wang
,
Melinda Webster
,
Øyvind Winton
,
K. Wood
,
Alison York
, and
Robert Ziel
Free access