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Bruce A. Boe, Jeffrey L. Stith, Paul L. Smith, John H. Hirsch, John H. Helsdon Jr., Andrew G. Detwiler, Harold D. Orville, Brooks E. Mariner, Roger F. Reinking, Rebecca J. Meitín, and Rodger A. Brown

The North Dakota Thunderstorm Project was conducted in the Bismarck, North Dakota, area from 12 June through 22 July 1989. The project deployed Doppler radars, cloud physics aircraft, and supporting instrumentation to study a variety of aspects of convective clouds. These included transport and dispersion; entrainment; cloud-ice initiation and evolution; storm structure, dynamics, and kinematics; atmospheric chemistry; and electrification.

Of primary interest were tracer experiments that identified and tracked specific regions within evolving clouds as a means of investigating the transport, dispersion, and activation of ice-nucleating agents as well as studying basic transport and entrainment processes. Tracers included sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), carbon monoxide, ozone, radar chaff, and silver iodide.

Doppler radars were used to perform studies of all scales of convection, from first-echo cases to a mesoscale convective system. An especially interesting dual-Doppler study of two splitting thunderstorms has resulted.

The objectives of the various project experiments and the specific facilities employed are described. Project highlights and some preliminary results are also presented.

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Brian A. Klimowski, Robert Becker, Eric A. Betterton, Roelof Bruintjes, Terry L. Clark, William D. Hall, Brad W. Orr, Robert A. Kropfli, Paivi Piironen, Roger F. Reinking, Dennis Sundie, and Taneil Uttal

The 1995 Arizona Program was a field experiment aimed at advancing the understanding of winter storm development in a mountainous region of central Arizona. From 15 January through 15 March 1995, a wide variety of instrumentation was operated in and around the Verde Valley southwest of Flagstaff, Arizona. These instruments included two Doppler dual-polarization radars, an instrumented airplane, a lidar, microwave and infrared radiometers, an acoustic sounder, and other surface-based facilities. Twenty-nine scientists from eight institutions took part in the program. Of special interest was the interaction of topographically induced, storm-embedded gravity waves with ambient upslope flow. It is hypothesized that these waves serve to augment the upslope-forced precipitation that falls on the mountain ridges. A major thrust of the program was to compare the observations of these winter storms to those predicted with the Clark-NCAR 3D, nonhydrostatic numerical model.

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Roger F. Reinking, Roger Caiazza, Robert A. Kropfli, Brad W. Orr, Brooks E. Martner, Thomas A. Niziol, Gregory P. Byrd, Richard S. Penc, Robert J. Zamora, Jack B. Snider, Robert J. Ballentine, Alfred J. Stamm, Christopher D. Bedford, Paul Joe, and Albert J. Koscielny

Snowstorms generated over the Great Lakes bring localized heavy precipitation, blizzard conditions, and whiteouts to downwind shores. Hazardous freezing rain often affects the same region in winter. Conventional observations and numerical models generally are resolved too coarsely to allow detection or accurate prediction of these mesoscale severe weather phenomena. The Lake Ontario Winter Storms (LOWS) project was conducted to demonstrate and evaluate the potential for real-time mesoscale monitoring and location-specific prediction of lake-effect storms and freezing rain, using the newest of available technologies. LOWS employed an array of specialized atmospheric remote sensors (a dual-polarization short wavelength radar, microwave radiometer, radio acoustic sounding system, and three wind profilers) with supporting observing systems and mesoscale numerical models. An overview of LOWS and its initial accomplishments is presented.

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