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  • Author or Editor: Russell S. Vose x
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Anthony Arguez
and
Russell S. Vose

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Anthony Arguez
,
Russell S. Vose
, and
Jenny Dissen
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Thomas C. Peterson
and
Russell S. Vose

The Global Historical Climatology Network version 2 temperature database was released in May 1997. This century-scale dataset consists of monthly surface observations from ~7000 stations from around the world. This archive breaks considerable new ground in the field of global climate databases. The enhancements include 1) data for additional stations to improve regional-scale analyses, particularly in previously data-sparse areas; 2) the addition of maximum–minimum temperature data to provide climate information not available in mean temperature data alone; 3) detailed assessments of data quality to increase the confidence in research results; 4) rigorous and objective homogeneity adjustments to decrease the effect of nonclimatic factors on the time series; 5) detailed metadata (e.g., population, vegetation, topography) that allow more detailed analyses to be conducted; and 6) an infrastructure for updating the archive at regular intervals so that current climatic conditions can constantly be put into historical perspective. This paper describes these enhancements in detail.

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Matthew J. Menne
,
Claude N. Williams Jr.
, and
Russell S. Vose

In support of climate monitoring and assessments, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) National Climatic Data Center has developed an improved version of the U.S. Historical Climatology Network temperature dataset (HCN version 2). In this paper, the HCN version 2 temperature data are described in detail, with a focus on the quality-assured data sources and the systematic bias adjustments. The bias adjustments are discussed in the context of their effect on U.S. temperature trends from the period 1895–2007 and in terms of the differences between version 2 and its widely used predecessor (now referred to as HCN version 1). Evidence suggests that the collective effect of changes in observation practice at U.S. HCN stations is systematic and of the same order of magnitude as the background climate signal. For this reason, bias adjustments are essential to reducing the uncertainty in U.S. climate trends. The largest biases in the HCN are shown to be associated with changes to the time of observation and with the widespread changeover from liquid-in-glass thermometers to the maximum–minimum temperature system (MMTS). With respect to HCN version 1, HCN version 2 trends in maximum temperatures are similar, while minimum temperature trends are somewhat smaller because of 1) an apparent overcorrection in HCN version 1 for the MMTS instrument change and 2) the systematic effect of undocumented station changes, which were not addressed in HCN version 1.

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Scott Applequist
,
Anthony Arguez
,
Imke Durre
,
Michael F. Squires
,
Russell S. Vose
, and
Xungang Yin

The 1981–2010 U.S. Climate Normals released by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) include a suite of descriptive statistics based on hourly observations. For each hour and day of the year, statistics of temperature, dew point, mean sea level pressure, wind, clouds, heat index, wind chill, and heating and cooling degree hours are provided as 30-year averages, frequencies of occurrence, and percentiles. These hourly normals are available for 262 locations, primarily major airports, from across the United States and its Pacific territories. We encourage use of these products specifically for examination of the diurnal cycle of a particular variable, and how that change may shift over the annual cycle.

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Anthony Arguez
,
Imke Durre
,
Scott Applequist
,
Russell S. Vose
,
Michael F. Squires
,
Xungang Yin
,
Richard R. Heim Jr.
, and
Timothy W. Owen

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) released the 1981–2010 U.S. Climate Normals in July 2011, representing the latest decadal installment of this long-standing product line. Climatic averages (and other statistics) of temperature, precipitation, snowfall, and numerous derived quantities were calculated for ~9,800 stations operated by the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS). They include estimated normals, or “quasi normals,” for approximately 2,000 active short-record stations such as those in the U.S. Climate Reference Network. The 1981–2010 installment features several new products and methodological enhancements: 1) state-of-the-art temperature homogenization at the monthly scale, 2) extensive utilization of quality-controlled daily climate data, 3) new statistical approaches for calculating daily temperature normals and heating and cooling degree days, and 4) a comprehensive suite of precipitation, snowfall, and snow depth statistics. This paper provides a general overview of this new suite of climate normals products.

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Joseph J. Barsugli
,
David R. Easterling
,
Derek S. Arndt
,
David A. Coates
,
Thomas L. Delworth
,
Martin P. Hoerling
,
Nathaniel Johnson
,
Sarah B. Kapnick
,
Arun Kumar
,
Kenneth E. Kunkel
,
Carl J. Schreck
,
Russell S. Vose
, and
Tao Zhang
Open access
Russell S. Vose
,
Derek Arndt
,
Viva F. Banzon
,
David R. Easterling
,
Byron Gleason
,
Boyin Huang
,
Ed Kearns
,
Jay H. Lawrimore
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Matthew J. Menne
,
Thomas C. Peterson
,
Richard W. Reynolds
,
Thomas M. Smith
,
Claude N. Williams Jr.
, and
David B. Wuertz

This paper describes the new release of the Merged Land–Ocean Surface Temperature analysis (MLOST version 3.5), which is used in operational monitoring and climate assessment activities by the NOAA National Climatic Data Center. The primary motivation for the latest version is the inclusion of a new land dataset that has several major improvements, including a more elaborate approach for addressing changes in station location, instrumentation, and siting conditions. The new version is broadly consistent with previous global analyses, exhibiting a trend of 0.076°C decade−1 since 1901, 0.162°C decade−1 since 1979, and widespread warming in both time periods. In general, the new release exhibits only modest differences with its predecessor, the most obvious being very slightly more warming at the global scale (0.004°C decade−1 since 1901) and slightly different trend patterns over the terrestrial surface.

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Lennart Bengtsson
,
Phil Arkin
,
Paul Berrisford
,
Philippe Bougeault
,
Chris K. Folland
,
Chris Gordon
,
Keith Haines
,
Kevin I. Hodges
,
Phil Jones
,
Per Kallberg
,
Nick Rayner
,
Adrian J. Simmons
,
Detlef Stammer
,
Peter W. Thorne
,
Sakari Uppala
, and
Russell S. Vose
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Thomas C. Peterson
,
Richard R. Heim Jr.
,
Robert Hirsch
,
Dale P. Kaiser
,
Harold Brooks
,
Noah S. Diffenbaugh
,
Randall M. Dole
,
Jason P. Giovannettone
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Kristen Guirguis
,
Thomas R. Karl
,
Richard W. Katz
,
Kenneth Kunkel
,
Dennis Lettenmaier
,
Gregory J. McCabe
,
Christopher J. Paciorek
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Karen R. Ryberg
,
Siegfried Schubert
,
Viviane B. S. Silva
,
Brooke C. Stewart
,
Aldo V. Vecchia
,
Gabriele Villarini
,
Russell S. Vose
,
John Walsh
,
Michael Wehner
,
David Wolock
,
Klaus Wolter
,
Connie A. Woodhouse
, and
Donald Wuebbles

Weather and climate extremes have been varying and changing on many different time scales. In recent decades, heat waves have generally become more frequent across the United States, while cold waves have been decreasing. While this is in keeping with expectations in a warming climate, it turns out that decadal variations in the number of U.S. heat and cold waves do not correlate well with the observed U.S. warming during the last century. Annual peak flow data reveal that river flooding trends on the century scale do not show uniform changes across the country. While flood magnitudes in the Southwest have been decreasing, flood magnitudes in the Northeast and north-central United States have been increasing. Confounding the analysis of trends in river flooding is multiyear and even multidecadal variability likely caused by both large-scale atmospheric circulation changes and basin-scale “memory” in the form of soil moisture. Droughts also have long-term trends as well as multiyear and decadal variability. Instrumental data indicate that the Dust Bowl of the 1930s and the drought in the 1950s were the most significant twentieth-century droughts in the United States, while tree ring data indicate that the megadroughts over the twelfth century exceeded anything in the twentieth century in both spatial extent and duration. The state of knowledge of the factors that cause heat waves, cold waves, floods, and drought to change is fairly good with heat waves being the best understood.

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