Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 2 of 2 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Sarah Tessendorf x
  • Weather and Forecasting x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search
Robert J. Trapp
,
Sarah A. Tessendorf
,
Elaine Savageau Godfrey
, and
Harold E. Brooks

Abstract

The primary objective of this study was to estimate the percentage of U.S. tornadoes that are spawned annually by squall lines and bow echoes, or quasi-linear convective systems (QLCSs). This was achieved by examining radar reflectivity images for every tornado event recorded during 1998–2000 in the contiguous United States. Based on these images, the type of storm associated with each tornado was classified as cell, QLCS, or other.

Of the 3828 tornadoes in the database, 79% were produced by cells, 18% were produced by QLCSs, and the remaining 3% were produced by other storm types, primarily rainbands of landfallen tropical cyclones. Geographically, these percentages as well as those based on tornado days exhibited wide variations. For example, 50% of the tornado days in Indiana were associated with QLCSs.

In an examination of other tornado attributes, statistically more weak (F1) and fewer strong (F2–F3) tornadoes were associated with QLCSs than with cells. QLCS tornadoes were more probable during the winter months than were cells. And finally, QLCS tornadoes displayed a comparatively higher and statistically significant tendency to occur during the late night/early morning hours. Further analysis revealed a disproportional decrease in F0–F1 events during this time of day, which led the authors to propose that many (perhaps as many as 12% of the total) weak QLCSs tornadoes were not reported.

Full access
Sarah A. Tessendorf
,
Allyson Rugg
,
Alexei Korolev
,
Ivan Heckman
,
Courtney Weeks
,
Gregory Thompson
,
Darcy Jacobson
,
Dan Adriaansen
, and
Julie Haggerty

Abstract

Supercooled large drop (SLD) icing poses a unique hazard for aircraft and has resulted in new regulations regarding aircraft certification to fly in regions of known or forecast SLD icing conditions. The new regulations define two SLD icing categories based upon the maximum supercooled liquid water drop diameter (Dmax): freezing drizzle (100–500 μm) and freezing rain (>500 μm). Recent upgrades to U.S. operational numerical weather prediction models lay a foundation to provide more relevant aircraft icing guidance including the potential to predict explicit drop size. The primary focus of this paper is to evaluate a proposed method for estimating the maximum drop size from model forecast data to differentiate freezing drizzle from freezing rain conditions. Using in situ cloud microphysical measurements collected in icing conditions during two field campaigns between January and March 2017, this study shows that the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh model is capable of distinguishing SLD icing categories of freezing drizzle and freezing rain using a Dmax extracted from the rain category of the microphysics output. It is shown that the extracted Dmax from the model correctly predicted the observed SLD icing category as much as 99% of the time when the HRRR accurately forecast SLD conditions; however, performance varied by the method to define Dmax and by the field campaign dataset used for verification.

Full access