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  • Author or Editor: Spiros G. Geotis x
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Spiros G. Geotis

Abstract

Total instantaneous water contents of several intense thunderstorms were calculated from smoothed representations drawn from quantitative radar observations; values typically ranged from 108–109 kg. Rain rates and accumulations were obtained from reflectivity measurements near the surface. The rainfall rates of the storms were about 105–106 kg sec−1 with total accumulations averaging 109–1010 kg. Dimensions and durations of the storms are also given.

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Spiros G. Geotis

Abstract

Average reflectivities of the rain falling on a ship, measured with a shipborne radar by observing at close range and high elevation angle, are compared with values computed from drop size measurements on the ship. Agreement is good and the technique appears to hold promise as a routine calibration check in locations where sidelobe echoes from nearby ground targets are not too predominant.

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Spiros G. Geotis

Abstract

The radar reflectivity of thunderstorms at 10 cm is shown to be a good indicator of hail and a rough measure of its size. The physical characteristics of the hailstorm, as deduced from 3- and 10-cm echoes of a large number of New England hailstorms of 1961, are described. It is shown that the hailstorm possesses no great singularity beyond that of its significantly high reflectivity. It is concluded that the larger hail-stones contribute little to the total liquid water content of the thunderstorm as the highest reflectivities measured are easily accounted for by low concentrations of large hail, wet or dry.

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Spiros G. Geotis

Abstract

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Pauline M. Austin and Spiros G. Geotis

Abstract

Several sets of drop size measurements were made on ships and aircraft during GATE. The data were taken primarily as support for the radar measurements and have been analyzed to provide relations between radar reflectivity and desired meteorological quantities.

Uncertainties in the results because of instrumental difficulties and differences within and between the various data sets are examined and discussed. The overall Z-R relation based on the combined data sets is Z = 180R 1.35. Also included are relations of the reflectivity factor to rainwater content and attenuation of 5 cm radiation.

Comparison of the drop size distributions with measurements from other places suggests that tropical oceanic showers typically contain an abundance of medium-sized drops and relatively few large ones.

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