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Stephanie Contardo
,
Ryan J Lowe
,
Francois Dufois
,
Jeff E Hansen
,
Mark Buckley
, and
Graham Symonds

Abstract

Long waves play an important role in coastal inundation and shoreline and dune erosion, requiring a detailed understanding of their evolution in nearshore regions and interaction with shorelines. While their generation and dissipation mechanisms are relatively well understood, there are fewer studies describing how reflection processes govern their propagation in the nearshore. We propose a new approach, accounting for partial reflections, which leads to an analytical solution to the free wave linear shallow-water equations at the wave-group scale over general varying bathymetry. The approach, supported by numerical modeling, agrees with the classic Bessel standing solution for a plane sloping beach but extends the solution to arbitrary alongshore uniform bathymetry profiles and decomposes it into incoming and outgoing wave components, which are a combination of successively partially reflected waves lagging each other. The phase lags introduced by partial reflections modify the wave amplitude and explain why Green’s law, which describes the wave growth of free waves with decreasing depth, breaks down in very shallow water. This reveals that the wave amplitude at the shoreline is highly dependent on partial reflections. Consistent with laboratory and field observations, our analytical model predicts a reflection coefficient that increases and is highly correlated with the normalized bed slope (bed slope relative to wave frequency). Our approach shows that partial reflections occurring due to depth variations in the nearshore are responsible for the relationship between the normalized bed slope and the amplitude of long waves in the nearshore, with direct implications for determining long-wave amplitudes at the shoreline and wave runup.

Free access
Stephanie Contardo
,
Ryan J. Lowe
,
Jeff E. Hansen
,
Dirk P. Rijnsdorp
,
François Dufois
, and
Graham Symonds

Abstract

Long waves are generated and transform when short-wave groups propagate into shallow water, but the generation and transformation processes are not fully understood. In this study we develop an analytical solution to the linearized shallow-water equations at the wave-group scale, which decomposes the long waves into a forced solution (a bound long wave) and free solutions (free long waves). The solution relies on the hypothesis that free long waves are continuously generated as short-wave groups propagate over a varying depth. We show that the superposition of free long waves and a bound long wave results in a shift of the phase between the short-wave group and the total long wave, as the depth decreases prior to short-wave breaking. While it is known that short-wave breaking leads to free-long-wave generation, through breakpoint forcing and bound-wave release mechanisms, we highlight the importance of an additional free-long-wave generation mechanism due to depth variations, in the absence of breaking. This mechanism is important because as free long waves of different origins combine, the total free-long-wave amplitude is dependent on their phase relationship. Our free and forced solutions are verified against a linear numerical model, and we show how our solution is consistent with prior theory that does not explicitly decouple free and forced motions. We also validate the results with data from a nonlinear phase-resolving numerical wave model and experimental measurements, demonstrating that our analytical model can explain trends observed in more complete representations of the hydrodynamics.

Full access
Diana Greenslade
,
Mark Hemer
,
Alex Babanin
,
Ryan Lowe
,
Ian Turner
,
Hannah Power
,
Ian Young
,
Daniel Ierodiaconou
,
Greg Hibbert
,
Greg Williams
,
Saima Aijaz
,
João Albuquerque
,
Stewart Allen
,
Michael Banner
,
Paul Branson
,
Steve Buchan
,
Andrew Burton
,
John Bye
,
Nick Cartwright
,
Amin Chabchoub
,
Frank Colberg
,
Stephanie Contardo
,
Francois Dufois
,
Craig Earl-Spurr
,
David Farr
,
Ian Goodwin
,
Jim Gunson
,
Jeff Hansen
,
David Hanslow
,
Mitchell Harley
,
Yasha Hetzel
,
Ron Hoeke
,
Nicole Jones
,
Michael Kinsela
,
Qingxiang Liu
,
Oleg Makarynskyy
,
Hayden Marcollo
,
Said Mazaheri
,
Jason McConochie
,
Grant Millar
,
Tim Moltmann
,
Neal Moodie
,
Joao Morim
,
Russel Morison
,
Jana Orszaghova
,
Charitha Pattiaratchi
,
Andrew Pomeroy
,
Roger Proctor
,
David Provis
,
Ruth Reef
,
Dirk Rijnsdorp
,
Martin Rutherford
,
Eric Schulz
,
Jake Shayer
,
Kristen Splinter
,
Craig Steinberg
,
Darrell Strauss
,
Greg Stuart
,
Graham Symonds
,
Karina Tarbath
,
Daniel Taylor
,
James Taylor
,
Darshani Thotagamuwage
,
Alessandro Toffoli
,
Alireza Valizadeh
,
Jonathan van Hazel
,
Guilherme Vieira da Silva
,
Moritz Wandres
,
Colin Whittaker
,
David Williams
,
Gundula Winter
,
Jiangtao Xu
,
Aihong Zhong
, and
Stefan Zieger
Full access
Diana Greenslade
,
Mark Hemer
,
Alex Babanin
,
Ryan Lowe
,
Ian Turner
,
Hannah Power
,
Ian Young
,
Daniel Ierodiaconou
,
Greg Hibbert
,
Greg Williams
,
Saima Aijaz
,
João Albuquerque
,
Stewart Allen
,
Michael Banner
,
Paul Branson
,
Steve Buchan
,
Andrew Burton
,
John Bye
,
Nick Cartwright
,
Amin Chabchoub
,
Frank Colberg
,
Stephanie Contardo
,
Francois Dufois
,
Craig Earl-Spurr
,
David Farr
,
Ian Goodwin
,
Jim Gunson
,
Jeff Hansen
,
David Hanslow
,
Mitchell Harley
,
Yasha Hetzel
,
Ron Hoeke
,
Nicole Jones
,
Michael Kinsela
,
Qingxiang Liu
,
Oleg Makarynskyy
,
Hayden Marcollo
,
Said Mazaheri
,
Jason McConochie
,
Grant Millar
,
Tim Moltmann
,
Neal Moodie
,
Joao Morim
,
Russel Morison
,
Jana Orszaghova
,
Charitha Pattiaratchi
,
Andrew Pomeroy
,
Roger Proctor
,
David Provis
,
Ruth Reef
,
Dirk Rijnsdorp
,
Martin Rutherford
,
Eric Schulz
,
Jake Shayer
,
Kristen Splinter
,
Craig Steinberg
,
Darrell Strauss
,
Greg Stuart
,
Graham Symonds
,
Karina Tarbath
,
Daniel Taylor
,
James Taylor
,
Darshani Thotagamuwage
,
Alessandro Toffoli
,
Alireza Valizadeh
,
Jonathan van Hazel
,
Guilherme Vieira da Silva
,
Moritz Wandres
,
Colin Whittaker
,
David Williams
,
Gundula Winter
,
Jiangtao Xu
,
Aihong Zhong
, and
Stefan Zieger

Abstract

The Australian marine research, industry, and stakeholder community has recently undertaken an extensive collaborative process to identify the highest national priorities for wind-waves research. This was undertaken under the auspices of the Forum for Operational Oceanography Surface Waves Working Group. The main steps in the process were first, soliciting possible research questions from the community via an online survey; second, reviewing the questions at a face-to-face workshop; and third, online ranking of the research questions by individuals. This process resulted in 15 identified priorities, covering research activities and the development of infrastructure. The top five priorities are 1) enhanced and updated nearshore and coastal bathymetry; 2) improved understanding of extreme sea states; 3) maintain and enhance the in situ buoy network; 4) improved data access and sharing; and 5) ensemble and probabilistic wave modeling and forecasting. In this paper, each of the 15 priorities is discussed in detail, providing insight into why each priority is important, and the current state of the art, both nationally and internationally, where relevant. While this process has been driven by Australian needs, it is likely that the results will be relevant to other marine-focused nations.

Free access