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  • Author or Editor: T. J. Jackson x
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Dongryeol Ryu, Wade T. Crow, Xiwu Zhan, and Thomas J. Jackson

Abstract

Hydrologic data assimilation has become an important tool for improving hydrologic model predictions by using observations from ground, aircraft, and satellite sensors. Among existing data assimilation methods, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) provides a robust framework for optimally updating nonlinear model predictions using observations. In the EnKF, background prediction uncertainty is obtained using a Monte Carlo approach where state variables, parameters, and forcing data for the model are synthetically perturbed to explicitly simulate the error-prone representation of hydrologic processes in the model. However, it is shown here that, owing to the nonlinear nature of these processes, an ensemble of model forecasts perturbed by mean-zero Gaussian noise can produce biased background predictions. This ensemble perturbation bias in soil moisture states can lead to significant mass balance errors and degrade the performance of the EnKF analysis in deeper soil layers. Here, a simple method of bias correction is introduced in which such perturbation bias is corrected using an unperturbed model simulation run in parallel with the EnKF analysis. The proposed bias-correction scheme effectively removes biases in soil moisture and reduces soil water mass balance errors. The performance of the EnKF is improved in deeper layers when the filter is applied with the bias-correction scheme. The interplay of nonlinear hydrologic processes is discussed in the context of perturbation biases, and implications of the bias correction for real-data assimilation cases are presented.

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David T. Bolvin, George J. Huffman, Eric J. Nelkin, and Jackson Tan

Abstract

Satellite-based precipitation estimates provide valuable information where surface observations are not readily available, especially over the large expanses of the ocean where in situ precipitation observations are very sparse. This study compares monthly precipitation estimates from the Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) with gauge observations from 37 low-lying atolls from the Pacific Rainfall Database for the period June 2000–August 2020. Over the analysis period, IMERG estimates are slightly higher than the atoll observations by 0.67% with a monthly correlation of 0.68. Seasonally, DJF shows excellent agreement with a near-zero bias, while MAM shows IMERG is low by 4.6%, and JJA is high by 1.2%. SON exhibits the worst performance, with IMERG overestimating by 6.5% compared to the atolls. The seasonal correlations are well contained in the range 0.67–0.72, with the exception of SON at 0.62. Furthermore, SON has the highest RMSE at 4.70 mm day−1, making it the worst season for all metrics. Scatterplots of IMERG versus atolls show IMERG, on average, is generally low for light precipitation accumulations and high for intense precipitation accumulations, with best agreement at intermediate rates. Seasonal variations exist at light and intermediate rate accumulations, but IMERG consistently overestimates at intense precipitation rates. The differences between IMERG and atolls vary over time but do not exhibit any discernable trend or dependence on atoll population. The PACRAIN atoll gauges are not wind-loss corrected, so application of an appropriate adjustment would increase the precipitation amounts compared to IMERG. These results provide useful insight to users as well as valuable information for future improvements to IMERG.

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Jackson Tan, George J. Huffman, David T. Bolvin, Eric J. Nelkin, and Manikandan Rajagopal

Abstract

A key strategy in obtaining complete global coverage of high-resolution precipitation is to combine observations from multiple fields, such as the intermittent passive microwave observations, precipitation propagated in time using motion vectors, and geosynchronous infrared observations. These separate precipitation fields can be combined through weighted averaging, which produces estimates that are generally superior to the individual parent fields. However, the process of averaging changes the distribution of the precipitation values, leading to an increase in precipitating area and a decrease in the values of high precipitation rates, a phenomenon observed in IMERG. To mitigate this issue, we introduce a new scheme called SHARPEN (Scheme for Histogram Adjustment with Ranked Precipitation Estimates in the Neighborhood), which recovers the distribution of the averaged precipitation field based on the idea of quantile mapping applied to the local environment. When implemented in IMERG, precipitation estimates from SHARPEN exhibit a distribution that resembles that of the original instantaneous observations, with matching precipitating area and peak precipitation rates. Case studies demonstrate its improved ability in bridging between the parent precipitation fields. Evaluation against ground observations reveals a distinct improvement in precipitation detection skill, but also a slightly reduced correlation likely because of a sharper precipitation field. The increased computational demand of SHARPEN can be mitigated by striding over multiple grid boxes, which has only marginal impacts on the accuracy of the estimates. SHARPEN can be applied to any precipitation algorithm that produces an average from multiple input precipitation fields and is being considered for implementation in IMERG V07.

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Wade T. Crow, George J. Huffman, Rajat Bindlish, and Thomas J. Jackson

Abstract

Over land, remotely sensed surface soil moisture and rainfall accumulation retrievals contain complementary information that can be exploited for the mutual benefit of both product types. Here, a Kalman filtering–based tool is developed that utilizes a time series of spaceborne surface soil moisture retrievals to enhance short-term (2- to 10-day) satellite-based rainfall accumulation products. Using ground rain gauge data as a validation source, and a soil moisture product derived from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer aboard the NASA Aqua satellite, the approach is evaluated over the contiguous United States. Results demonstrate that, for areas of low to moderate vegetation cover density, the procedure is capable of improving short-term rainfall accumulation estimates extracted from a variety of satellite-based rainfall products. The approach is especially effective for correcting rainfall accumulation estimates derived without the aid of ground-based rain gauge observations. Special emphasis is placed on demonstrating that the approach can be applied in continental areas lacking ground-based observations and/or long-term satellite data records.

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H. Gao, E. F. Wood, T. J. Jackson, M. Drusch, and R. Bindlish

Abstract

Passive microwave remote sensing has been recognized as a potential method for measuring soil moisture. Combined with field observations and hydrological modeling brightness temperatures can be used to infer soil moisture states and fluxes in real time at large scales. However, operationally acquiring reliable soil moisture products from satellite observations has been hindered by three limitations: suitable low-frequency passive radiometric sensors that are sensitive to soil moisture and its changes; a retrieval model (parameterization) that provides operational estimates of soil moisture from top-of-atmosphere (TOA) microwave brightness temperature measurements at continental scales; and suitable, large-scale validation datasets. In this paper, soil moisture is retrieved across the southern United States using measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) X-band (10.65 GHz) radiometer with a land surface microwave emission model (LSMEM) developed by the authors. Surface temperatures required for the retrieval algorithm were obtained from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model using North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) forcing data. Because of the limited information content on soil moisture in the observed brightness temperatures over regions characterized by heavy vegetation, active precipitation, snow, and frozen ground, quality control flags for the retrieved soil moisture are provided. The resulting retrieved soil moisture database will be available through the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) at a 1/8° spatial resolution across the southern United States for the 5-yr period of January 1998 through December 2002. Initial comparisons with in situ observations obtained from the Oklahoma Mesonet resulted in seasonal correlation coefficients exceeding 0.7 for half of the time covered by the dataset. The dynamic range of the satellite-derived soil moisture dataset is considerably higher compared to the in situ data. The spatial pattern of the TMI soil moisture product is consistent with the corresponding precipitation fields.

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Qing Liu, Rolf H. Reichle, Rajat Bindlish, Michael H. Cosh, Wade T. Crow, Richard de Jeu, Gabrielle J. M. De Lannoy, George J. Huffman, and Thomas J. Jackson

Abstract

The contributions of precipitation and soil moisture observations to soil moisture skill in a land data assimilation system are assessed. Relative to baseline estimates from the Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), the study investigates soil moisture skill derived from (i) model forcing corrections based on large-scale, gauge- and satellite-based precipitation observations and (ii) assimilation of surface soil moisture retrievals from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E). Soil moisture skill (defined as the anomaly time series correlation coefficient R) is assessed using in situ observations in the continental United States at 37 single-profile sites within the Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) for which skillful AMSR-E retrievals are available and at 4 USDA Agricultural Research Service (“CalVal”) watersheds with high-quality distributed sensor networks that measure soil moisture at the scale of land model and satellite estimates. The average skill of AMSR-E retrievals is R = 0.42 versus SCAN and R = 0.55 versus CalVal measurements. The skill of MERRA surface and root-zone soil moisture is R = 0.43 and R = 0.47, respectively, versus SCAN measurements. MERRA surface moisture skill is R = 0.56 versus CalVal measurements. Adding information from precipitation observations increases (surface and root zone) soil moisture skills by ΔR ~ 0.06. Assimilating AMSR-E retrievals increases soil moisture skills by ΔR ~ 0.08. Adding information from both sources increases soil moisture skills by ΔR ~ 0.13, which demonstrates that precipitation corrections and assimilation of satellite soil moisture retrievals contribute important and largely independent amounts of information.

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